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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER I COMPOSITE INDEX ASHRAE HANDBOOK SERIES This index covers the current Handbook series published by ASHRAE. The four volumes in the series are identified as follows: R A S F = = = = 2006 Refrigeration 2007 HVAC Applications 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment 2009 Fundamentals The page reference for an index entry includes the book letter and the chapter number, which may be followed by a decimal point and the beginning page in the chapter. For example, the page number S31.4 means the information may be found in the 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment volume, Chapter 31, beginning on page 4. Each Handbook volume is revised and updated on a four-year cycle. Because technology and the interests of ASHRAE members change, some topics are not included in the current Handbook series but may be found in the earlier Handbook editions cited in the index. types air washers, S40.8 combination, S28.6 electronic, S9.1; S28.5, 7; S32.2 evaporative coolers, S40.8 maintenance, S28.8 media filters, S28.5 Air conditioners. (See also Central air conditioning) faults, A38.5 packaged terminal (PTAC), S49.5 design, S49.5, 6 heavy-duty commercial grade, S2.3 sizes and classifications, S49.5 testing, S49.7 residential, A1 split systems, S2.6 through-the-wall room units, A1.6 unitary, A1.4 retail stores, A2.1 rooftop units, S2.8 room codes and standards, S49.4 design, S49.1 features, S49.3 filters, S49.4 installation and service, S49.4 noise, S49.4 performance, S49.2 sizes and classifications, S49.1 split systems, S48.1 coil placement, S48.8 residential and light-commercial, S2.6 unitary air handlers, S48.7 application, S48.1 capacity control, S48.7 certification, S48.6 circuit components, S48.6 codes and standards, S48.5, 6 desuperheaters, S48.4 efficiency, S48.5 electrical design, S48.7 installation, S48.2 maintenance, S48.2 mechanical design, S48.8 multizone, S48.4 piping, S48.7 refrigerant circuit control, S48.6 space conditioning/water heating, S48.4 Alphabetization of the index is letter by letter; for example, Heaters precedes Heat exchangers, and Floors precedes Floor slabs. Abbreviations, F37 Absorbents liquid, F2.14; F32.3 refrigerant pairs, F2.15 Absorption ammonia/water, F30.1, 69 hydrogen cycle, R41.8 technology, R41.7 chillers, S3.4 turbines in, S17.4 coefficient of performance (COP), F2.13 concepts coupling, F2.16 double-effect calculations, F2.18 cascaded, F2.16 cycle characteristics, F2.14 dehumidification, S23.10 equipment, R41.1 evolving technologies, R41.10 ideal thermal, F2.13 industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S29.17 refrigeration cycles, F2.13 ammonia/water, F30.1, 69 lithium bromide/water, F30.1, 69 types, F2.16 modeling analysis and performance simulation, F2.16 phase constraints, F2.13 representations, F2.15 solar cooling, A33.18, 26; S36.3, 9 water/lithium bromide technology components, R41.1 control, R41.6 double-effect chillers, R41.3 maintenance, R41.7 operation, R41.6 single-effect chillers, R41.2 single-effect heat transformers, R41.3 terminology, R41.1 working fluids, F2.14 Acoustics. See Sound Activated carbon adsorption, A45.5 ADPI. See Air diffusion performance index (ADPI) Adsorbents impregnated, S29.24 solid, A45.5; F32.4 Adsorption dehumidification, S23.1, 10 indoor air cleaning, A45.5 industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S29.24 moisture, F32.1 Aeration, of farm crops, A23.4 Aerosols, S28.1 Affinity laws for centrifugal pumps, S43.7 AFUE. See Annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) AHU. See Air handlers Air age of, and ventilation, F16.4 changes per hour (ACH), F16.4 drying, S23.11 flux, F25.2 liquefaction, R38.8 permeability, F25.2 permeance, F25.2 separation, R38.17 transfer, F25.2 Air barriers, F26.13 Airborne infectious diseases, F10.6 Air cleaners. (See also Filters, air; Industrial exhaust gas cleaning) gaseous (indoor air) adsorbers, A45.5 chemisorbers, A45.6 economics, A45.13 energy consumption, A45.13 environmental effects on, A45.15 installation, A45.14 location, A45.9 media selection, A45.10 operation and maintenance, A45.14 safety, A45.14 sizing, A45.10 terminology, A45.5 testing, A45.15 types, A45.7 industrial exhaust systems, A30.7 particulate contaminants, S28.1 industrial ventilation, S28.2 particle collection mechanisms, S28.2 penetration, S28.3 residential, S28.9 safety requirements, S28.12 selection, S28.8 standards, S28.3, 5 test methods, S28.2 I.1 I.2 types, S48.2, 4 unit ventilators, S27.1 window-mounted, S2.3 Air conditioning. (See also Central air conditioning) airports, A3.9 animal buildings, A22.4 archives, A21 arenas, A4.4 atriums, A4.8 auditoriums, A4.3 automobile, A9.1 bakeries, R28 bars, A3.5 bowling centers, A3.8 buses, A9.13 bus terminals, A3.10 casinos, A3.6 changeover temperature, S5.11, 13 clean spaces, A16 commercial buildings, A3.1; S2.6 computer rooms, A17 concert halls, A4.4 convention centers, A4.5 data processing areas, A17 desiccant dehumidification and, S23.10 dormitories, A5.1, 8 educational facilities, A6.1 engine test facilities, A15.1 equipment outdoor, S2.8 refrigeration, S3.3 exhibition centers, A4.5 fairs, A4.8 fixed-guideway vehicles, A9.18 galleries, A21 gymnasiums, A4.5 health care facilities, A7 hospitals, A7.2 nursing facilities, A7.14 outpatient, A7.13 hotels and motels, A5 houses of worship, A4.3 ice rinks, A4.5 industrial environments, A12; A29 kitchens, A3.5, 6; A31 laboratories, A14.1 libraries, A21 mass transit, A9.13 mines, A27 museums, A21 natatoriums, A4.6 nightclubs, A3.6 nuclear facilities, A26 office buildings, A3.6 paper products facilities, A24.2 photographic processing and storage areas, A20.1 places of assembly, A4 plant growth chambers, A22.17 power plants, A25.10 printing plants, A18 public buildings, A3.1 radio stations, A3.8 rail cars, A9.15 restaurants, A3.5 retrofitting, contaminant control, R6.9 F = 2009 Fundamentals 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals ship docks, A3.10 solar energy systems, A33.16, 18, 26 subway stations, A13.13 swimming areas, A4.6 systems decentralized, S2.1 floor-by-floor, S2.6 forced-air, small, S9.1 packaged outdoor equipment, S2.8 rooftop, S2.8 radiant panel S6.1 selection, S1.1, 8 self-contained, S2.6 space requirements, S1.5 split, S2.6 television studios, A3.8 temporary exhibits, A4.8 textile processing plants, A19.4 theaters, A4.3 transportation centers, A3.9 warehouses, A3.11 wood products facilities, A24.1 Air contaminants, F11. See also Contaminants Aircraft, A10 air conditioning, A10.5 air distribution, A10.7 air filters, A10.4, 9 air quality, A10.8 cabin pressurization control, A10.6, 8 performance, A10.2, 4 carbon dioxide concentration, A10.9 environmental control system (ECS), A10.2, 4, 6, 8 air-conditioning packs, A10.4 air-cycle machine, A10.5 cabin pressure control, A10.2, 4, 6, 8 design conditions considerations, A10.2 ventilation, A10.4 engine bleed air system, A10.4 load determination, A10.3 outside air, A10.4 pneumatic system, A10.4 regulations, A10.1 heating, A10.4 humidity, A10.9 multiple factors, A10.10 oxygen levels, A10.1, 9 ozone concentration, A10.1, 7, 8 ventilation, A10.1, 4 Air curtains, display cases, R46.5 Air diffusers sound control, A47.9 testing, A37.2 Air diffusion air jets angle of divergence, F20.3 Archimedes number, F20.6 behavior, F20.3 centerline velocity, F20.3 Coanda effect, F20.6 entrainment ratios, F20.5 fundamentals, F20.3 isothermal, radial flow, F20.6 multiple, F20.7 nonisothermal, F20.6 surface (wall and ceiling), F20.6 throw, F20.5 ceiling-mounted diffusers, F20.11 equipment, S19 evaluation, F20.12 air velocity, F20.13 exhaust inlets, F20.11 methods displacement ventilation, F20.16 mixed-air systems, F20.7 outlets Group A, F20.7, 10 Group B, F20.8, 10 Group C, F20.9, 11 Group D, F20.9, 11 Group E, F20.9, 11 performance, F20.10 performance index, F20.12, 13 return inlets, F20.11 space, F20.1 standards, F20.12 system design, F20.9 temperature gradient, F20.9 terminology, F20.2 Air diffusion performance index (ADPI), A56.5; F20.12, 13 Air distribution aircraft cabins, A10.7 air terminals, A56.1 animal environments, A22.3, 5 bowling centers, A3.8 buildings, S4.1 central system, A41.2 communications centers, A3.9 control, A46.17; S4.17 ductwork, S1.7; S4.10 equipment, S19 fixed-guideway vehicles, A9.19 forced-air systems, small, S9.7 industrial environments, A29.2 in-room terminal systems, S5.10 isovels, A56.5 kitchen makeup air, A31.15 laboratories, A14.9 mapping, A56.5 occupied zone, A56.1 places of assembly, A4.2 rail cars, A9.17 retail stores, A2.1 ships, A11.3, 4 sound control, A47.2, 30 systems, A56.1 design considerations, A56.1 fully stratified, A56.6 mixed, A56.2 partially mixed, A56.8 rooms, A56.1 terminal boxes, A46.14, 17 testing, adjusting, balancing, A37.3 textile processing plants, A19.6 zone control, A46.10, 19 Air exchange rate air changes per hour (ACH), F16.4 modeling, F16.22 multizone measurement, F16.6 time constants, F16.4 tracer gas measurement method, F16.5 Air filters. See Filters, air R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications Composite Index Airflow air-to-transmission ratio, S5.12 around buildings, F24 air intake contamination estimation minimum dilution, F24.11 coefficients wind pressure, F24.3 computational modeling, F24.9 internal pressure, F24.9 LES model, F24.10 modeling and testing, F24.9 wind tunnels, F24.10 patterns, A44.3; F24.1 RANS model, F24.10 wind data, F24.3, 6 effects on system operation intakes and exhausts, F24.7 system volume, F24.9 ventilation, F24.7 velocity pressure (Bernoulli equation), F24.3 through building components, F25.7 clean spaces, A16.3 computational fluid dynamics, A39.10 computer-aided modeling, A16.4 condensers, evaporative, S38.15 control, F25; F26; F27 and convection, F25.5 displacement flow, F16.3 entrainment flow, F16.3 exhaust hoods, A30.3 furnaces, S32.3 and heat flow, F25.12 laminar, A16.3 measurement of, A37.2 modeling, hygrothermal, F25.13 modeling, in buildings, F13 nonunidirectional, A16.3 perfect mixing, F16.3 pressure differentials, F25.4 smoke management, A52.5 solar energy systems, A33.25 terminology, F25.2 tracking, A46.9 unidirectional, A16.3, 10, 11 and water vapor flow, F25.8 velocity measurement, F36.15 Airflow retarders, F25.7, 8 walls, A43.4 Air flux, F25.2. (See also Airflow) Air handlers all-air systems, S4.3 control, A46.17 cooling, S4.4 dampers, S4.7 dehumidification, S4.5, 9 distribution systems, A41.2 draw-through, S4.3 economizers, S4.7 fans, S4.4, 6, 9 faults, A38.6 filter, S4.8 heating, S4.5 humidification, S4.5, 9 location, S4.4 mixing plenums, S4.7 psychrometrics, S4.4 reheat, S4.9 F = 2009 Fundamentals I.3 sequencing, A41.26 set point reset, A41.27 sound levels, A47.3 strategies, A41.26 unitary, air conditioners, S48.7 vibration isolation, S4.10 Air intakes design, A44.1 hospitals, A7.2 location to avoid contamination, A44.2 outdoor, S4.7 vehicular facilities, enclosed, A13.35 Air jets. See Air diffusion Air leakage. (See also Infiltration) area, F16.15 building distribution, F16.16 commercial buildings, F16.25 controlling, air-vapor retarder, F16.17 leakage function, F16.14 measurement, F16.14, 15 Air outlets accessories, S19.4 dampers, S19.4, 6 location, S9.4 selection, S19.2 smudging, S19.3 sound level, S19.2 supply, S19.1 surface effects, S19.2 temperature differential, S19.2 types, S19.3 Airports, air conditioning, A3.9 Air quality. (See also Indoor air quality) aircraft cabins, A10.8 animal buildings, A22.2 bus terminals, A13.23 diesel locomotive facilities, A13.26 parking garages, A13.17 road tunnels, A13.7 tollbooths, A13.25 Airtightness, F36.22 Air-to-air energy recovery, S25 Air-to-transmission ratio, S5.12 Air transport, R32 animals, R32.2 commodity requirements, R32.2 design considerations, R32.2 galley refrigeration, R32.4 ground handling, R32.4 perishable cargo, R32.1 refrigeration, R32.3 shipping containers, R32.2 Air washers air cleaning, S40.8 coolers, S40.6 dehumidification performance factor, S40.8 heat and mass simultaneous transfer, F6.11 high-velocity spray type, S40.7 humidification, S40.7 maintenance, S40.8 spray type, S40.6 textile processing plants, A19.4 water treatment, A48.9; S40.9 Algae, control, A48.5 All-air systems advantages, S4.1 air distribution, S4.10 air handlers, S4.3 buildings, S4.1 constant-volume, S4.10, 12 control, S4.17 cooling, S4.4, 8 costs, S4.3 dehumidification, S4.5, 9 disadvantages, S4.1 dual-duct, S4.12 economizers, S4.7 heating, S4.2, 5 humidification, S4.5, 9 multizone, S4.13 primary equipment, S4.4 single-duct, S4.10 variable-air-volume (VAV), S4.11, 12 zoning, S4.2 Ammonia absorption ammonia/water, F2.18; R41.7 ammonia/water/hydrogen, R41.8 in animal environments, A22.2, 9 properties, ammonia/water, F30.1, 34-35, 69 system practices, R3 Anchor bolts, seismic restraint, A54.14 Anemometers air devices, A37.2 types, F36.15 Animal environments air contaminants ammonia, A22.2, 9 carbon dioxide, A22.2 air distribution, A22.3, 5 air inlets, A22.6 air quality control, A22.2 air transport, R32.2 cattle, beef and dairy, A22.7 cooling, A22.4 design, A22.1 disease control, A22.3 evaporative cooling, A22.4; A51.14 fans, A22.6 heating, A22.4 hydrogen sulfide, A22.2 insulation, A22.4 laboratory conditions, A14.14; A22.9 moisture control, A22.2 particulate matter (PM), A22.2 poultry, A22.8 shades, A22.3 swine, A22.7 temperature control, A22.1 ventilation, A22.5 Annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE), S32.8; S33.2 Antifreeze coolants, secondary, F31.4 ethylene glycol, F31.4 hydronic systems, S12.23 propylene glycol, F31.4 Antisweat heaters (ASH), R46.5 Apartment buildings service water heating, A49.13, 16 ventilation, A1.6 Aquifers, thermal storage, A34.6; S50.6 Archimedes number, F20.6 Archives. See Museums, galleries, archives, and libraries R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications I.4 Arenas air conditioning, A4.4 smoke management, A52.12 Argon, recovery, R38.17 Asbestos, F10.4 ASH. See Antisweat heaters (ASH) Atriums air conditioning, A4.8 smoke management, A52.12 Attics, unconditioned, F27.2 Auditoriums, A4.3 Automobiles air conditioners compressors, A9.8 condensers, A9.9 controls, A9.8 design factors, A9.1 evaporators, A9.6, 11 lubricants, A9.11 receiver/drier/filter assembly, A9.10 refrigerants flow control, A9.8 vehicles, A9.11 engine test facilities, A15.1 environmental control, A9.1 heaters controls, A9.8 design factors, A9.1 heater cores, A9.5 ventilation, A9.8 Autopsy rooms, A8.5, 6 Avogadro’s law, and fuel combustion, F28.10 Backflow-prevention devices, S46.13 BACnet®, A39.15; F7.18 Bacteria control, A48.5 food, growth in, R12.1 humidifiers, growth in, S21.1 pathogens, F10.7 Bakery products, R28 air conditioning, R28.1 bread, R28 cooling, R28.4 dough production, R28.2 freezing, R28.5 ingredient storage, R28.1 refrigeration, R28.1; R47.2 slicing, R28.5 wrapping, R28.5 Balance point, heat pumps, S48.9 Balancing. (See also Testing, adjusting, and balancing) air distribution systems, A37.3 dual-duct systems, A37.4 HVAC systems, A37.1 hydronic systems, A37.6 induction systems, A37.5 kitchen ventilation systems, A31.18 refrigeration systems, R43.1 steam distribution systems, A37.15 temperature controls, A37.16 variable-air-volume (VAV) systems, A37.4 Bars, A3.4, 5 BAS. See Building automation system (BAS) Baseboard units application, S35.5 design effects, S35.3 F = 2009 Fundamentals 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals finned-tube, S35.1 heating equipment, S35.1 nonstandard condition corrections, S35.3 radiant, S35.1 rating, S35.3 Basements conditioned, A43.1 heat loss, F17.11, F18.30 heat transfer, F27.2 moisture control, A43.2 unconditioned, A43.1 Beer’s law, F4.16 Bernoulli equation, F21.1 generalized, F3.2, 6 kinetic energy factor, F3.2 steady flow, F3.12 wind velocity pressure, F24.3 Best efficiency point (BEP), S43.6 Beverages, R26 beer, R26.1 storage requirements, R11.11 carbonated, R26.10 coolers, R26.11 fruit juice, R25.1 liquid carbon dioxide storage, R26.12 refrigeration systems, R26.11 refrigerators for, R47.2 thermal properties, R9.1 time calculations cooling, R10.1 freezing, R10.7 wine production, R26.8 storage temperature, R26.10 BIM. See Building information modeling (BIM) Bioaerosols airborne bacteria, F11.2, F11.6 control, F11.7 fungus spores, F11.2 microbiological particulate, F11.6 mold, F11.6 pollen, F11.2 sampling, F11.7 viruses, F11.2 origins, F11.1 particles, F10.4 Biocides, control, A48.5 Biodiesel, F28.6 Biological safety cabinets, A14.6 Biomanufacturing cleanrooms, A16.5 Bioterrorism. See Chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents Boilers, S31 air supply, S34.28 aluminum, S31.3 burners, S30.1 burner types, S31.6 carbonic acid, S10.2 cast iron, S31.2 central multifamily, A1.5 plants, S11.3 classifications, S31.1 codes, S31.5 combination, S31.4 condensing, S31.3 construction materials, S31.1 controls, A46.1; S31.6, 7 flame safeguard, S31.7 optimization, A41.3 copper, S31.3 draft types, S31.3 dry-base, S31.2 efficiency, S31.5 electric, S31.4 equipment, S3.5 gas-fired, S30.5, S30.11 venting, S34.19 integrated, S31.4 modeling, F19.14 noncondensing, S31.3 oil-fired venting, S34.21 piping, S10.3 rating, S31.5 residential, A1.3 scotch marine, S31.3 selection, S31.5 service water heating, A49.25 sizing, S31.6 stainless steel, S31.3 standards, S31.5 steam, S31.1 systems, S10.3 steel, S31.2 stokers, S30.17 storing, A48.11 venting, S34.19, 21 wall-hung, S31.4 waste heat, S10.3 water, S31.1 water treatment, A48.10 wet-base, S31.2 wet-leg, S31.2 working pressure, S31.1 Boiling critical heat flux, F5.4 evaporators flow mechanics, F5.4 heat transfer, F5.5 film, F5.1 natural convection systems, F5.1 nucleate, F5.1, 2 pool, F5.1 Bowling centers, A3.8 Brake horsepower, S43.7 Brayton cycle cryogenics, R38.11 gas turbine, S7.18 Bread, R28 Breweries carbon dioxide production, R26.6 refrigeration fermenting cellar, R26.4 Kraeusen cellar, R26.5 stock cellar, R26.5 systems, R26.7 wort cooler, R26.3 storage tanks, R26.6 vinegar production, R26.8 Brines. See Coolants, secondary Building automation systems (BAS), A39.15; F7.14 Building energy monitoring, A40. (See also Energy, monitoring) R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications Composite Index Building envelopes ceilings, A43.5 condensation, S21.2 driving rain load, F25.3 energy conservation, A43.1 fenestration, A43.6 foundations, A43.1 interface, A43.6 material properties, F26 museums, galleries, archives, and libraries, A21.12 roofs, A43.5 structural failure, from moisture, F25.14 thermal bridges, F25.7 design recommendations, A43.10 heat transfer, A43.8 mitigation of, A43.9 thermal mass, A43.11 U-value, F25.7 walls, residential, A43.3 Building information modeling (BIM), A39.11 Building materials, properties, F26 Building thermal mass charging and discharging, A34.15; S50.15 effects of, A34.14; S50.14 precooling, A41.28 Burners air supply, S34.28 controls, S30.19 conversion, S30.4, 6 dual-fuel gas/oil, S30.14 gas-fired, S30.3 altitude compensation, S30.10 combustion and adjustments, S30.19 commercial, S30.6 industrial, S30.6 residential, S30.5 venting, S34.19 oil-fired, S30.11 commercial, S30.12 fuel handling system, S30.15 preparation system, S30.16 storage, S30.14 industrial, S30.12 residential, S30.11 venting, S34.21 venting, S34.19, 21 Buses air conditioning, A9.13 garage ventilation, A13.20 Bus terminals air conditioning, A3.10 physical configuration, A13.22 ventilation equipment, A13.31 operation areas, A13.23 control, A13.24 effects of alternative fuel use, A13.24 platforms, A13.22 Butane, commercial, F28.5 CAD. See Computer-aided design (CAD) Cafeterias air conditioning, A3.4 service water heating, A49.13, 19 Calcium chloride brines, F31.1 Candy chocolate, R29.1 F = 2009 Fundamentals I.5 manufacture chilling, R29.3 coating, R29.4 cooling, R29.4 dipping, R29.2 drying, R29.3 enrobing, R29.2 plants, R29.1 refrigeration plant, R29.4 storage humidity, R29.7 temperature, R29.6 Capillary action, and moisture flow, F25.8 Capillary tubes capacity balance, R44.24 characteristic curve, R44.24 pressure-reducing device, R44.23 restrictor orifice, S22.2 selection, R44.26 Carbon dioxide in aircraft cabins, A10.9 in animal environments, A22.2 combustion, F28.1, 11 greenhouse enrichment, A22.14 liquefaction, R26.7 measurement, F36.23 refrigerant, R3.26 storage, R26.12 Carbon emissions, F34.6 Carbon monoxide analyzers, A13.9, 10 health effects, F10.11 parking garages, A13.17, 18 road tunnels, A13.7 tollbooths, A13.25 Cargo containers, R30 airborne sound, R30.7 air circulation, R30.3 ambient design factors, R30.6 commodity precooling, R30.9 control, R30.5, 10 controlled atmosphere, R30.5 costs, owning and operating, R30.9 design, R30.1 equipment attachment provisions, R30.3 design and selection factors, R30.5, 8 operating economy, R30.6 qualification testing, R30.7 selection, R30.8 system application factors, R30.8 types, R30.3 heating only, R30.5 insulation barrier, R30.1 load calculations, R30.8 maintenance, R30.10 mechanical cooling and heating, R30.3 operations, R30.9 qualification testing, R30.7 safety, R30.7 sanitation, R30.3 shock and vibration, R30.5 space considerations, R30.10 storage effect cooling, R30.4 system application, R30.8 temperature-controlled transport, R30.1 temperature settings, R30.9 use, R30.9 vapor barrier, R30.1 ventilation, R30.5, 10 Carnot refrigeration cycle, F2.6 Casinos, A3.4, 6 Cattle, beef and dairy, A22.7 (See also Animal environments) CAV. See Constant air volume (CAV) Cavitation, F3.13 pumps, centrifugal, S43.8 valves, S46.2 CBRE. See Chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents Ceiling effect. See Coanda effect Ceilings air movement, A43.6 insulation, A43.5 moisture control, A43.6 sound correction, A47.25 sound transmission, A47.30 natural ventilation, F16.13 Central air conditioning, A41. (See also Air conditioning) Central plants boiler, S11.3 chiller, S11.1, 4 distribution design, S11.5 district heating and cooling, S11.3 emission control, S11.4 heating medium, S11.3 hotels and motels, A5.7 thermal storage, S11.4 Central systems cooling and heating, S3.1 features, S1.3 furnaces, S32.1 humidifiers, S21.5 residential forced-air, S9.1 space requirements, S1.5 ventilation, with in-room terminal systems, S5.2 Cetane number, engine fuels, F28.8 CFD. See Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) Charging, refrigeration systems, R45.4 Chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents, A58 biological events, A58.4 building envelope as protection, F16.11, 18 chemical agent types, A58.1 gases and vapors, A58.3 incapacitating, A58.2 irritants, A58.2 toxic, A58.2 chemical events, A58.1 explosive events, A58.5 design considerations, A58.6 loading description, A58.5 general guidelines, A58.1 HVAC system design, A58.7 radiological events, A58.4 risk evaluation, A58.7 Chemical plants automation, R37.3 energy recovery, R37.4 flow sheets, R37.1 instrumentation and controls, R37.8 outdoor construction, R37.4 piping, R37.8 pumps, R37.8 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications I.6 refrigeration compressors, R37.6 condensers, R37.6 cooling towers, R37.8 equipment, R37.3, 6 evaporators, R37.7 load, R37.2 safety requirements, R37.2 spray ponds, R37.8 systems, R37.1, 5 safety requirements, R37.2 specifications, R37.1 tanks, R37.8 Chemisorption, A45.6 Chilled water (CW) combined heat and power (CHP) distribution, S7.44 district heating and cooling, S11.4, 19, 32 optimal temperature, A41.17 pumping system, A41.2, 6, 17 pump sequencing, A41.16, 20 reset, A41.16, 17 systems, S12.1, 17 central plant, A37.14 heat transfer versus flow, A37.7 one-pipe, S12.19 testing, adjusting, balancing, A37.8 two-pipe, S12.19 thermal storage, A34.4; S50.4 water treatment, A48.10 Chillers absorption, S3.4 ammonia/water, R41.7 heat-activated, S7.39 water/lithium bromide, R41.2 blast, R47.3 central plants, A46.4; S11.1, 4 centrifugal air-cooled, S42.12 controls, S42.11 equipment, S42.8 fouling, S42.11 free cooling, S42.12 hot-gas bypass, S42.10 maintenance, S42.12 purge units, S42.11 rating, S42.10 refrigerant selection, S42.8 transfer units, S42.12 selection methods, S42.10 temperature lift, S42.10 control, A46.4 capacity, S42.4, 14 considerations, S42.11 regulating, S42.4 safety, S42.4 costs, S42.3 direct expansion, R2.26; S42.1 economizing, S42.1 expansion turbines, S42.1 faults, A38.5 flash, S42.1 heat recovery, S42.2 injection, S42.1 liquid chilling systems, S42 liquid heads, S42.3 load distribution, A41.21 F = 2009 Fundamentals 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals maintenance, S42.5, 12, 15 marine water boxes, S42.3 noise generation, A47.10; S42.11 optimization, A46.5 prerotation vanes, S42.4, 9 reciprocating components, S42.5 control, S42.7 equipment, S42.5 performance, S42.6 refrigerant selection, S42.6 selection methods, S42.7 refrigeration cycle, S42.1 screw applications, S42.15 capacity control, S42.14 components, S42.13 equipment, S42.13 maintenance, S42.15 performance, S42.14 selection methods, S42.3, 7, 10 sequencing, A41.6, 20, 23 standards, S42.5 subcooling, S42.1 and turbines, S17.4 vapor compression model, F19.15 variable-flow, S42.2 variable-speed, S42.4, 10 vibration control, A47.12; S42.11 Chilton-Colburn j-factor analogy, F6.7 Chimneys, S34 accessories, S34.30 capacity calculation examples, S34.14 caps, S34.32 codes, S34.35 design equations, S34.3 draft, S34.1 available, S34.1, 3 theoretical, S34.2, 3 fireplace, S34.1, 23 flue gas, S34.1 functions, S34.2 gas, appliance venting, S34.20 masonry, S34.20, 22 materials, S34.28 standards, S34.29, 35 terminations, S34.32 wind effects, S34.3, 32 Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), A32.6 Chocolate, R29.1 (See also Candy) Choking, F3.13 CHP systems. See Combined heat and power (CHP) Cinemas, A4.3 Claude cycle, R38.8 Cleanrooms. See Clean spaces Clean spaces, A16 aerospace, A16.11 air filters, A16.3, 7, 10 airflow, A16.3, 4, 10, 11 applications, A16.2 biomanufacturing cleanrooms, A16.5 construction, A16.15 contaminant control, A16.3, 7 cooling, A16.12 energy conservation, A16.14 fire safety, A16.13 high-bay, A16.11 humidity control, A16.13 makeup air, A16.13, 15 noise control, A16.15 operation, A16.15 particle sources, A16.3 pharmaceutical aseptic, A16.6 start-up, A16.8 biomanufacturing, A16.5 contaminant control, A16.7 control and monitoring, A16.8 design, A16.6 isolators, A16.7 nonaseptic, A16.8 unidirectional hoods, A16.7 pressurization, A16.14 process exhaust, A16.13, 15 semiconductor, A16.10 system sizing and redundancy, A16.14 temperature control, A16.13 terminology, A16.1 testing, A16.5 vibration control, A16.15 Clear-sky solar radiation, calculation, F14.7 Climatic design information, F14 Clothing insulation, clo units, F9.8 moisture permeability, F9.8 CLTD/CLF. See Cooling load temperature differential method with solar cooling load factors (CLTD/CLF) Coal classification, F28.8 handling facilities, A25.6, 9 heating value, F28.9 stokers, S30.17 types, F28.8 Coanda effect, A31.2; F20.6; S19.2 Codes, F39. (See also Standards) air conditioners, room, S49.4 air distribution, A56.1 boilers, S31.5 building codes, S18.1 chimneys, fireplaces, and gas vents, S34.35 condensers, S38 evaporative, S38.18 water-cooled, S38.7 coolers, liquid, S41.4 data processing, A17.15 dehumidifiers, room, S24.3 duct construction, S18.1 electrical, A55.15 furnaces, S32.10 makeup air units, S27.9 motors, S44.2 nuclear facilities, A26.10 piping, S45.6 Coefficient of performance (COP) absorption, F2.13 compressors, S37.2 economic (ECOP), combined heat and power (CHP), S7.50 refrigeration, F2.3, 13 room air conditioners, S49.2 Cogeneration. See Combined heat and power (CHP) Coils air-cooling, S4.8 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications Composite Index airflow resistance, S22.6 applications, S22.1, 4 aqueous glycol coils, S22.2 construction and arrangement, S22.1 control, A46.7; S22.3 direct-expansion coils, S22.2 fluid flow arrangement, S22.3 heat transfer, S22.6 load determination, S22.14 maintenance, S22.15 performance cooling and dehumidifying, S22.9 cooling-only, S22.7 rating, S22.6 refrigerant coils, S22.2 selection, S22.5 on ships, A11.4 water coils, S22.2 air-heating, S26.1 aqueous glycol, S26.2 construction, S26.1 design, S26.1 electric, A46.3; S26.3 installation, S26.4 maintenance, S26.5 rating, S26.3 refrigerant, S26.3 selection, S26.3 shipboard, A11.4 steam, A46.2; S26.1 water, A46.2; S14.8; S26.2 condensers, S38 evaporative, S38.14 dehumidifying, S22.1 desuperheating, S38.16 energy recovery loops, S25.11 halocarbon refrigeration systems, R2.27 heat and mass simultaneous transfer, F6.12 heat reclaim, S26.3 preheat, S4.8 reheat, S4.9; S26.2 Colburn’s analogy, F4.17 Colebrook equation friction factor, F21.6 pressure drop, F22.1 Collectors, solar, A33.6, 11, 23, 25; S36.3 (See also Solar energy) Colleges and universities, A6.10 Combined heat and power (CHP), S7 economic feasibility, S7.49 estimate, S7.50 load duration curve, S7.51 two-dimensional, S7.53 simulation, S7.53 electrical systems, S7.44 expansion engines/turbines, S7.31 heat-activated chillers, S7.39 heat recovery engines, S7.33, 34 turbines, S7.37 load profiling, S7.4 maintenance, S7.17 modular systems, S7.3 packaged systems, S7.3 peak shaving, S7.4 prime movers fuel cells, S7.22 F = 2009 Fundamentals I.7 selection, S7.4 thermal output, S7.33 turbines combustion, S7.18, 46 steam, S7.25, 47 thermal energy storage, S7.40 utilization systems air, S7.43 district heating and cooling, S7.44 hydronic, S7.43 service hot water, S7.43 vibration control, foundations, S7.15 Combustion, F28 air pollution, F28.14 air required for, F28.10 altitude compensation, F28.3 calculations air required for, F28.10 carbon dioxide, theoretical, F28.11 efficiency, F28.13 flue gas dew point, F28.12 loss, F28.14 quantity produced, F28.11 water vapor in, F28.12 coals characteristics, F28.9 classification, F28.9 heating value, F28.9 types, F28.8 condensation in, F28.16 continuous, F28.2 corrosion in, F28.16 diesel fuel, F28.7 efficiency, F28.13 engine fuels, cetane number, F28.8 excess air, F28.10 flammability limits F28.1 fuel oils, F28.6 gaseous fuels illuminants, F28.10 liquefied petroleum gas, F28.5 natural gas, F28.5 types and properties, F28.5 gas turbine fuel, F28.7 heating value, F28.3 ignition temperature, F28.2 illuminants, F28.10 liquid fuels, F28.6 engines, F28.8 noise, F28.17 oscillation, F28.17 pollution, F28.14 principles, F28.1 pulse, F28.2 reactions, F28.1 resonance, F28.17 solid fuels, F28.8 soot, F28.17 sound, F28.17 stoichiometric, F28.1 types, F28.1 Combustion air systems air required, S34.28 analysis, F36.32 burners gas, S30.19 oil, S30.11 control, S30.2 efficiency boilers, S31.5 industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S29.27 venting, S34.1 Combustion turbine inlet cooling (CTIC), S7.20; S17.1 thermal storage, A34.17; S50.17 Comfort. (See also Physiological principles, humans) environmental indices, F9.21 environmental parameters air velocity, F36.29 asymmetric thermal radiation, F9.14 draft, F9.14 floor temperature, F9.15 radiant temperature, F9.11 vertical air temperature difference, F9.15 humidity; F25.14, F36.30; S21.1 local discomfort, F9.14 nonuniform conditions, F9.14 predicted mean vote (PMV), F9.17; F36.30 predicted percent dissatisfied (PPD), F9.17 productivity, F9.13 radiant heating, A53.3 special environments extreme cold, F9.25 hot and humid environments, F9.24 infrared heating, F9.23 radiant heating, comfort equations, F9.24 steady-state energy balance, F9.16 two-node model, F9.18 task performance, F9.13 thermal sensation scale, F9.11 zones, F9.19; F10.12 Commercial and public buildings air leakage, F16.25 airports, A3.9 bars, A3.4, 5 bowling centers, A3.8 burners gas, S30.3, S30.6 oil, S30.12 bus terminals, A3.10 cafeterias, A3.4 casinos, A3.4, 6 central cooling systems, A41.1 communications centers, A3.8 ducts construction, S18.2 design, small applications, S9.10 furnaces, S32.5 garages, A3.10 general criteria, A3.1 humidifiers, S21.6 ice rinks, R35 kitchen ventilation, A31.1 load characteristics, A3.1 malls, A2.6 nightclubs, A3.4, 6 office buildings, A3.6 restaurants, A3.4, 5 retail facilities, A2.1 service water heating, A49.11 ship docks, A3.10 transportation centers, A3.9 warehouses, A3.11 Commissioning, A42 acceptance, A42.7 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications I.8 construction, A42.6 control systems, F7.18 costs, A42.10 desiccant dehumidifiers, S23.7 design, A42.5; A46.23 existing buildings, A42.1, 11 in integrated building design, A57.8 laboratories, A14.19 makeup air units, S27.9 new construction, A42.1 objectives, A42.2 occupancy and operations, A42.10 owner’s project requirements (OPR), A42.2 predesign, A42.4 pumps, centrifugal, S43.13 recommissioning, A42.1, 10 retrocommissioning, A42.1, 11 team, A42.3 test procedures, A42.8 Communications centers, A3.8 Compressors, S37 air conditioners, room, S49.2 ammonia refrigeration systems, R3.2 bearings centrifugal, S37.36 reciprocating, S37.7, 10 rotary, S37.13 scroll, S37.23 single-screw, S37.14 twin-screw, S37.20 centrifugal, S7.46 angular momentum, S37.29 bearings, S37.36 capacity control, S37.33 critical speed, S37.34 design, S37.35, 36 drivers, S37.35 efficiency, S37.32 isentropic analysis, S37.30 lubrication, S37.36 Mach number, S37.32 noise, S37.5, 23, 34 paralleling, S37.35 polytropic analysis, S37.30 refrigeration cycle, S37.28 surging, S37.33 testing, S37.32 turbocompressors, S37.28 variable-speed, S37.33 vibration, S37.34 chemical industry refrigeration, R37.6 drives, R3.2 dynamic, S37.1 engine-driven, S7.46 halocarbon refrigeration systems, R2.24 heat pump systems, S8.6 motors, S37.6, S44.4 noise generation, A47.10 operation and maintenance, S37.36 orbital, S37.23 positive-displacement, S37.6 performance, S37.2 reciprocating, S7.45; S37.7 application, S37.11 bearings, S37.7, 10 capacity control, S37.11 crankcase, R2.33 features, S37.9 F = 2009 Fundamentals 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals lubrication, S37.10 parallel, R3.10 performance, S37.8 special devices, S37.11 types, S37.7 valves, S37.10 rotary, R3.12; S37.11, 14 bearings, S37.13 screw, S7.46 lubricant cooling, R3.12 single, S37.14 bearings, S37.14 capacity control, S37.17 compression process, S37.14 economizers, S37.16, 16 lubrication, S37.15 noise and vibration, S37.18 oil-injected, S37.15 performance, S37.18 volume ratio, S37.16 twin, S37.19 bearings, S37.20 capacity control, S37.20 compression process, S37.19 hermetic, S37.23 lubrication, S37.22 volume ratio, S37.21 scroll, S37.23 bearings, S37.25 capacity control, S37.25 efficiency, S37.26 variable-speed, S37.26 trochoidal (Wankel), S37.27 Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), F13.1 assessing predictions, F13.11 boundary conditions for inlet, F13.6 outlet, F13.7 reporting, F13.13 sources/sinks, F13.8 surfaces, F13.7 symmetry, F13.8 walls, F13.7 considerations, F13.9 grids, F13.4 mathematical approaches, F13.1 meshing, F13.4 reporting, F13.9, 13 steps, F13.9 turbulence modeling, F13.3 validation, F13.9, 10 verification, F13.9 viscosity modeling, F13.10 Computer-aided design (CAD), A16.4; A39.11 Computers, A39 abbreviations for programming, F37.1 BACnet®, A39.15; F7.18 building automation systems (BAS), A39.15 computational fluid dynamics, A13.2; A39.10; A52.14 computer-aided design (CAD), A16.4; A39.11 for control, F7.4, 10, 20 design tools acoustic calculations, A39.8 building information modeling (BIM), A39.11 combined heat and power (CHP), S7.53 computational fluid dynamics, A39.10 computer-aided design (CAD), A39.11 duct design, A39.6 equipment selection and simulation, A39.8 load calculations, A39.5 piping design, A39.7 refrigerant properties, A39.12 smoke control analysis, A52.12, 14 ventilation, A39.12 road tunnel, A13.2 equipment, A39.8 graphics, A39.11 hardware, A39.1 HVAC simulation, A39.9 Internet, A39.16 modeling, F7.20 monitoring and control, A39.14 networking components, A39.13 peripherals, A39.5 smoke control analysis, A52.12, 14 software, A39.2 antispyware, A39.2 custom programming, A39.4 development tools, A39.4 energy analysis, F19.3 firewall, A39.2 graphics, A39.3 HVAC, A39.5 readymade, A39.4 road tunnel, A13.2 terminology, A39.2 utilities, A39.2, 12 supervisory control, A39.14 World Wide Web, A39.17 Concert halls, A4.4 Concrete cooling, R36.1 pozzolanic admixtures, R36.1 selection, R36.1 thermal design, R36.4 water heating for, A49.23 Condensate steam systems, F22.13; S10.6; S11.7, 19 water treatment, A48.11 Condensation in building components, F25.14 in combustion systems, F28.16 concealed, S21.3 control, with insulation, F23.3 dew-point analysis, F25.13 dropwise, F5.8 energy recovery equipment, S25.7 film, F5.8 heat transfer coefficients, F5.9 interstitial, and drying, F25.13 noncondensable gases, F5.10 with oil, F5.11 oil-fired appliances, S34.21 prevention, dehumidification for, S23.10 surface, F25.2, 12 in tubes, F5.8 visible, S21.2 Condensers, S38 air conditioners, room, S49.2 air-cooled, R46.16; S38.8 control, S38 air-side, S38.11 low-pressure-drop, S38.11 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications Composite Index refrigerant-side, S38.11 installation, S38.12 machine room, R46.17 maintenance, S38.12 noise, R46.18 rating, S38.11 remote from compressor, R46.17 types, S38.8 ammonia refrigeration systems, R3.2 horizontal shell-and-tube, R3.15 parallel horizontal shell-and-tube, R3.15 piping, R3.14 cascade, R43.1 chemical industry refrigeration, R37.6 in chillers, S42.6, 8, 13 circuiting, S38.5 evaporative, R46.17; S38.13 airflow, S38.15 capacity control, S38.17 codes, S38.18 coils, S38.14 desuperheating, S38.16 wetting method, S38.15 freeze prevention, S38.15 heat transfer, S38.13 liquid subcoolers, S38.17 location, R3.15; S38.15 maintenance, S38.18 multicircuiting with liquid coolers, S38.17 multiple-condenser installations, S38.16 purging, S38.18 rating, S38.16 standards, S38.18 water, S38.17 halocarbon refrigeration systems air-cooled, R2.33 evaporative, R2.32 piping, R2.23 pressure control, R2.32 water, R2.32 retail food store refrigeration, R46.16 water-cooled, S38.1 circuiting, S38.5 codes, S38.7 Darcy-Weisbach equation, S38.4 fouling factor, S38.4 heat removal, S13.1, S38.1 heat transfer, S38.2 liquid subcooling, S38.5 maintenance, S38.7 noncondensable gases, S38.6 pressure drop, S38.4 standards, S38.7 types, S38.5 Conductance, thermal, F4.3; F25.1 Conduction display cases, R46.4 steady-state, F4.3 thermal, F4.1, 3 Conductivity, thermal, F25.1, F26.4 apparent, F25.1, F26.4 of thermal insulation, F26.4 foods, R9.9 soils, F26.12 Constant air volume (CAV) control, A41.2 F = 2009 Fundamentals I.9 supply air temperature reset, A41.27 versus variable-air-volume (VAV), A14.12 Constant-volume, all-air systems dual-duct, S4.12 single-duct, S4.10 terminal units, S4.16 Construction. (See also Building envelopes) curtain wall, F15.5 glass block wall, F15.19 in integrated building design, A57.7, 8 Containers. (See also Cargo containers) air transport, R32.2 marine transport, R31.2 Contaminants clean spaces, A16.3, 7 food, R12.1 gaseous combustion, F28.14; S29.27 concentration, indoor, measurement, A45.4 control, A45.5; F11.14 adsorption, A45.5; S29.24 catalysis, A45.7 chemisorption, A45.6 desiccant dehumidification, S23.10 dilution ventilation, A45.5 hoods and local exhaust, A45.5 incineration, S29.27 source elimination, A45.5 wet-packed scrubbers, S29.18 environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); F11.2 flammable, F11.18, 18 indoor air, F11.16 industrial, F11.16 inorganic, F11.14 measurement, A45.4; F11.10; F36.31 nuclear facilities, A26.3, 5, 7 outdoor air, F11.15 ozone, A45.12 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), F10.5 radioactive, F11.19 radon, A45.12; F10.17 soil gases, F11.20 vapors, flammable, F11.18, 18 volatile organic compounds (VOC), F11.11 health effects, F10.9 total (TVOC), F11.13 indoor, concentration prediction, F13.16 organism destruction, R12.4 particulate aerosols, S28.1 asbestos, F10.4 classification, F11.1 coarse, F11.2 collection mechanisms, S28.2; S29.10, 15 combustion, F28.14 dusts, S28.1 combustible, F11.18 environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), F11.2 fine, F11.3 fogs, F11.1, 3 fumes, F11.1 measurement, F36.32 mists, F11.1, 3 pollen, F11.6 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), F10.5 radioactive, F11.19 size distribution, F11.4 smogs, F11.1, 3 smokes, F11.1 suspended particles, counters, F11.6 synthetic vitreous fibers, F10.5 ultrafine, F11.3 refrigerant systems, R6.1 dirt, R6.6 field assembly, R6.8 filter-driers, R6.6 generation by high temperature, R5.8 lubricants, R6.7 metallic, R6.6 moisture, R6.1 motor burnout, R6.8 noncondensable gases, R6.7 residual cleaning agents, R6.7 sludge, tars, and wax, R6.7 solvents, R6.7 special system characteristics, R6.9 textile processing, A19.7 Continuity, fluid dynamics, F3.2 Control. (See also Controls, automatic and Supervisory control) absorption units, R41.6, 9 air-cooled condensers, S38.11 aircraft cabin pressure, A10.6, 8 air-handling systems, A41.26; A46.9 all-air systems, S4.17 authority, F7.7 automobile air conditioning, A9.8 biological growth, A48.5 boilers, A46.1; S31.6 building pressurization, A46.8 burners, S30.19 bus terminal ventilation, A13.24 central air conditioning, A41.1 chemical plants, R37.3 chilled-water pumps, A41.6, 16, 17 chillers, A41.20 combustion turbines, S7.22 components, F7.4 condensers, S38 evaporative, S38.17 cooling, S6.20 coils, A46.7; S22.3 tower fans, A41.12, 16 towers, A46.5 corrosion, A48.2, 9 dehumidifying coils, S22.3 design principles building and mechanical subdivision, A46.21 controlled area size, A46.23 energy conservation, A46.21 load matching, A46.23 sensor location, A46.23 system selection, A46.22 economizers, A46.2, 12 electric heating slabs, S6.20 energy recovery equipment, S25.7, 11 engines, S7.15 fans, A46.7; S20.9 air volume, S44.8 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications I.10 fire, A52.1 fixed-guideway vehicle air conditioning, A9.18 forced-air systems, small, S9.3 fundamentals, F7 furnaces, S32.2, 5 gaseous contaminants, A45.1 heaters, S33.2, 4 infrared, S15.4 heating coils, A46.2 heat pumps, A46.16; S48.10 heat recovery systems, S8.18 heat timers, S10.13 humidifiers, S21.7 humidity, A46.13; S21.1; S23.1 hydronic heating systems, A46.20; S12.13; S14.8 justice facilities, A8.3 kitchen ventilation, A31.27 laboratory systems, A14.12 liquid chillers, S42.4, 7, 11, 14 low-temperature, R3.6 makeup air units, A46.18; S27.9 motors, S44.5, 6 protection, S44.6 nuclear facilities, A26.5 optimization, A41.1 outdoor air quantity, A46.10 paper moisture content, A18.2 parking garage ventilation, A13.18 photographic materials processing, A20.3 pipe-tracing systems, A50.20 plant growth chambers, A22.17 processes, A45.5 radiant panels, A46.4; S6.19 radioactivity, A26.7 rail car air conditioning, A9.17 refrigerant flow, R44.1 residential heating and cooling, A1.5 road tunnel ventilation, A13.9 scale, A48.4 ship air conditioning merchant, A11.3 naval surface, A11.4 smoke, A52.1 snow-melting systems, A50.10 solar energy, A33.13, 24, 26; S36.16 differential temperature controller, S36.16 hot-water dump, S36.17 overtemperature protection, S36.17 sound, A47.1, 44; F8.15 static pressure limit control, A46.21 variable flow rates, A46.8 steam systems, S10.13 thermal storage systems, A34.23; A41.29; S50.23 unit heaters, S27.7 unit ventilators, A46.17; S27.3 variable-air-volume (VAV) systems, A41.2; A46.7 vibration, A47.38 zone systems, A46.19 zone valves, S10.13 Controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage apples, R22.3 apricots, R22.13 F = 2009 Fundamentals 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals berries, R22.13 cherries, sweet, R22.12 figs, R22.13 grapes, R22.8 nectarines, R22.12 peaches, R22.12 pears, R22.6, 7 plums, R22.11 refrigerated facilities, R14.3 strawberries, R22.13 vegetables, R24.6 Controlled-environment rooms (CERs), and plant growth, A22.16 Controls, automatic, F7 (See also Control) authority, F7.7 classification, F7.4 closed loop (feedback), F7.1 commissioning, F7.18 components controlled devices actuator, F7.4 dampers, F7.4, 6 operator, F7.4 positive positioners, F7.8 valves, F7.4 controllers direct digital (DDC), A37.16; F7.10, 19 static pressure, A46.8, 21 thermostats, F7.11 sensors, F7.8 flow rate, F7.10 humidity (hygrometers), F7.9 indoor air quality, F7.10 lighting level, F7.10 location, A46.23 power sensing and transmission, F7.10 pressure, F7.9 temperature, F7.9 transducers, electronic-to-pneumatic (E/P), F7.13 computers, A39.14; F7.4 control action types, F7.2, 4, 18 dampers, F7.6 actuator mounting, F7.8 actuators, F7.8 types, F7.6 direct digital (DDC), A37.16; F7.4, 10, 19 explosive atmospheres, A46.20 extraordinary incidents, A46.21 feedback (closed loop), F7.1 fuzzy logic, F7.3 mobile applications, A46.20 modeling, F19.23 modulating, F7.2 open loop, F7.1 positive positioners, F7.8 proportional/integral (PI), F7.3 proportional-integral-derivative (PID), F7.3 proportional-only (P), F7.3 refrigerant flow, R44.1 safety, A46.20 sensors, F7.8, 10; R44.4 static pressure, A46.8, 21 switches, R44.1 systems, F7.1 terminology, F7.1 testing, A37.16 transducers, pressure, R44.4 tuning, F7.3, 18, 19 two-position, F7.2 valves, F7.4 actuators, F7.6 flow characteristics, F7.5 selection and sizing, F7.5, 6 Convection flow, fully developed turbulent, F4.17 forced, F4.16 condensation in tubes, F5.8 evaporation in tubes, F5.4 equations, F5.6, 9 laminar, F4.17 transition region, F4.17 turbulent, F4.17 free, F4.18 mass, F6.5 natural, F4.18; F5.1 steam heating systems, S10.11 thermal, F4.1 Convectors application, S35.5 design effects, S35.3 heat-distributing unit, S35.1 nonstandard condition corrections, S35.3 rating, S35.2 Convention centers, A4.5 Conversion factors, F38 Coolants, secondary brines corrosion inhibition, A48.10; F31.4 properties, F31.1 calcium chloride solutions, F31.1 d-limonene, F31.13 ethyl alcohol solutions, F31.1 halocarbons, F31.12 inhibited glycols corrosion inhibition, F31.11 ethylene glycol, F31.4 propylene glycol, F31.4 service considerations, F31.11 low-temperature refrigeration, R39.11 nonhalocarbon nonaqueous fluids, F31.13 polydimethylsiloxane, F31.13 potassium formate solutions, F31.1 refrigeration systems, R4.1 sodium chloride solutions, F31.1 Coolers. (See also Refrigerators) beverage, R26.11 cryocoolers, R38.11 forced-circulation air, R42.1 installation and operation, R42.6 liquid (See also Evaporators) Baudelot, S41.2 brazed (semiwelded) plate, S41.2 in chillers, S42.6, 8, 13 evaporative, with evaporative condensers, S38.17 flooded, S41.2 freeze prevention, S41.5 heat transfer, S41 coefficients, S41.3 fouling factor, S41.4 maintenance, S41.6 oil return, S41.6 piping, R2.25, 26 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications Composite Index pressure drop, S41.4 refrigerant flow control, S41.5 residential, A1.4 shell-and-tube, S41.1 tube-in-tube, S41.1 vessel design requirements, S41.4 retail food store, R46.1 walk-in, R46.12; R47.3 water, R26.11 Cooling. (See also Air conditioning) absorption equipment, R41.1 animal environments, A22.4 bakery products, R28.4 concrete active systems, R36.5 air blast, R36.2 chilled water, R36.1 embedded coils, R36.1 inundation, R36.2 passive, R36.4 controls, S6.20 foods and beverages, time calculations, R10.1 fruits and vegetables evaporative, R15.8 forced-air, R15.6 hydrocooling, R15.3 load calculation, R15.1 package icing, R15.8 vacuum cooling, R15.9 geothermal energy systems, A32.9 greenhouses, A22.12 radiant panel systems, S6.1 radiative, A33.17 solar energy systems, A33.16, 18, 26 water systems, S12.1, 17, 18 dynamometers, A15.4 Cooling load calculations, F17; F18 central plant, S3.2 coil, F18.2 nonresidential, F18 heat balance (HB) method, F18.2, 15 conduction transfer functions, F18.19 heat gain fenestration, F18.14 sol-air temperature, F18.22 heat sources, F18.3 radiant time series (RTS) method, F18.20 sol-air temperature, F18.22 refrigeration, S5.11 residential F17 residential, heat balance (RHB) method, F17.2 load factor (RLF) method, F17.2 Cooling load temperature differential method with solar cooling load factors (CLTD/CLF), F18.49 Cooling towers, S39 approach to wet bulb, S39.1 capacity control, S39.2 airflow, A41.13 fan cycling, S39.8 fan sequencing, A41.13 flow modulation, A41.8 two-speed fans, S39.8 variable-frequency fan drives, S39.8 variable- versus fixed-speed fans, A41.8 F = 2009 Fundamentals I.11 construction materials, S39.7 design conditions, S39.2 drift, S39.11 eliminators, S39.11, 12 economics, S39.7 fill, S39.3 fogging, S39.11 free cooling, S39.10 freeze protection, S13.3; S39.10 heat and mass simultaneous transfer, F6.12 indirect evaporative coolers, S13.3; S40.5 inspections, S39.11 Legionella pneumophila, S39.12, 13 maintenance, S39.11 model, F19.16 number of transfer units (NTU), S39.16 performance curves, S39.13 monitoring, S39.11 thermal, S39.15 tower coefficients, S39.17 piping, S13.2; S39.8 plumes, S39.11 principle of operation, S39.1 recommissioning, A48.8 selection, S39.7 shutdown, A48.9 siting, S39.7 sound, attenuators, S39.10 start-up, A48.8 testing, A37.15; S39.15 theory, S39.15 counterflow integration, S39.16 cross-flow integration, S39.17 heat and mass transfer, S39.15 types, S3.5 direct contact, S39.5 indirect contact, S39.2, 6 open systems, S13.1 water treatment, A48.4, 8, 9; S13.2; S39.13 winter operation, S39.10 inspections, S39.13 Cool storage, A34.1; S50.1 COP. See Coefficient of performance (COP) Corn, drying, A23.1 Correctional facilities. See Justice facilities Corrosion brines, F31.4 in combustion systems, F28.16 concentration cell corrosion, A48.2 contributing factors, A48.2 control, A48.2, 3, 9 in boilers, A48.10 cathodic protection, A48.4 buried pipe, S11.24 in cooling towers, A48.4 cycles of concentration, A48.3 in geothermal energy systems, A32.6 inhibitors, A48.3 materials selection, A48.3 passivation, A48.4 protective coatings, A48.3 in steam and condensate systems, A48.11 energy recovery equipment, S25.7 galvanized metals, F31.11 glycol degradation, F31.11 inhibited glycols, F31.11 under insulation, F23.6 microorganism influence, A48.2, 5 oil-fired appliances, S34.22 oxygen corrosion, A48.2, 11 secondary coolant systems, R4.5 service water systems, A49.8 types, A48.2 white rust, A48.4 Costs. (See also Economics) all-air systems, S4.3 analysis period, A36.2 economic analysis techniques computer analysis, A36.11 life-cycle cost analyses, A36.9 present value (worth), A36.9 simple payback, A36.9 energy, A36.4, 9 financing alternatives, A36.8 inflation, A36.10 interest and discount rate, A36.3 laboratory systems, A14.19 life-cycle, A36.11 energy recovery equipment, S25.12, 16, 22 operation and maintenance, A38.2 piping insulation, S11.17 maintenance, A36.6 operating actual, A36.4 electrical energy, A36.4 natural gas, A36.6 other fuels, A36.6 snow-melting systems, A50.8, 10 owning initial cost, A36.1 insurance, A36.4 taxes, A36.4 periodic, A36.4 refrigerant phaseout, A36.8 Cotton, drying, A23.8 Courthouses, A8.4 Courtrooms, A8.4 CPVC. See Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) Crawlspaces heat loss, F17.11 insulation, A43.1 vented versus unvented, A43.1 wall insulation, A43.2 Critical spaces forensic labs, A8.6 justice facilities, A8.3 Crops. See Farm crops Cryogenics, R38 biomedical applications cryomicroscopy, R40.6 cryopreservation, R40.1 cryoprotective agents, R40.2 cryosurgery, R40.7 induced hypothermia, R40.7 refrigeration, R40.1 specimen preparation, R40.6 Brayton cycle, R38.11 cascade cycle, R38.8 Claude cycle, R38.8 cryobiological, R40.8 cryocoolers recuperative Brayton, R38.12 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications I.12 Joule-Thomson, R38.11 Kleemenko, R38.13 regenerative Gifford-McMahon, R38.16 orifice pulse tube, R38.14 Stirling, R38.14 cryopumping, R38.1 equipment coiled-tube exchanger, R38.21 compressors, R38.20 expansion devices, R38.20 heat exchangers, R38.21 regenerators, R38.22 systems, R38.20 turboalternators, R38.21 turboexpanders, R38.21 fluids cold burns, R38.28 flammability, R38.29 storage vessels, R38.26 transfer, R38.27 freezers, industrial, R16.5 hazards, R38.28 Heylandt cycle, R38.8 instrumentation, R38.27 insulation low-temperature, R38.23 selection (table), R38.26 thermal conductivity (table), R38.24 isenthalpic expansion, R38.6 isentropic expansion, R38.7 Joule-Thomson cycle, R38.6 Kleemenko cycle, R38.13 Linde cycle, R38.6 liquefaction balanced flow condition, R38.6 of gases, R38.6 liquid-level sensors, R38.27 mixed refrigerant cycle, R38.8 natural gas processing, R38.18 properties electrical, R38.5 magnetic, R38.5 mechanical, R38.6 thermal, R38.3 purification of gases, R38.19 recovery of gases, R38.17, 18 separation of gases, Gibbs phase rule, R38.16 staging, R38.15 Stirling cycle, R38.14 storage systems, R38.26 transfer systems, R38.27 CTIC. See Combustion turbine inlet cooling (CTIC) Curtain walls, F15.5 Cycloparaffins, R7.2 Dairy products, R20 aseptic packaging, R20.20 butter manufacture, R20.6 refrigeration load, R20.9 buttermilk, R20.5 cheese cheese room refrigeration, R20.13 manufacture, R20.10 cream, R20.5 display refrigerators, R46.6 F = 2009 Fundamentals 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals ice cream freezing, R20.16 hardening, R20.17 milkfat content, R20.13 mix preparation, R20.15 refrigeration equipment, R20.19 requirements, R20.16 milk dry, R20.22 evaporated, R20.22 fresh processing, R20.2 production, R20.1 storage, R20.4 sweetened condensed, R20.22 thermal properties, R9.1 UHT sterilization, R20.19 yogurt, R20.5 Dampers air outlet, S19.4, 6, 7 controls, automatic, F7.6, 7 fire and smoke control, A52.8 furnaces, S32.2, 9 opposed-blade, S4.7, S19.4, 7 outdoor air, A46.10 parallel-blade, S4.8, S19.4, 7 return air, S4.7 sound control, A47.8 splitter, S19.7 vehicular facilities, enclosed, A13.32 vent, S34.30 Dams, concrete cooling, R36.1 Darcy equation, F21.6 Darcy-Weisbach equation ductwork sectional losses, F21.11 pressure drop, F3.6; F22.1 water-cooled condensers, S38.4 water systems, S43.4 Data-driven modeling black-box, F19.24 calibrated simulation, F19.24 empirical, F19.24 examples, F19.30 gray-box, F19.25 neural network, F19.30 steady-state, F19.25 Data processing areas air-conditioning systems, A17.1 humidification, S21.1 design criteria, A17.1 codes, standards, and guidelines, A17.15 Daylighting interior building illumination, F15.51 light transmittance, F15.52 solar radiation, F15.1 Defrosting air coolers, forced-circulation, R42.4 air-source heat pump coils, S8.7, 8; S48.9 ammonia liquid recirculation systems, R3.22 household refrigerators and freezers, R48.6 meat coolers, R17.2 retail food store refrigerators, R46.19 Degree-days, F14.11; F19.19 Dehumidification, A46.13; S23 absorption, S23.10 adsorption, S23.10 air washers, S40.8 all-air systems, S4.5 desiccant, S23.1 applications, S23.1, 8 air-conditioning systems, S23.10 condensation prevention, S23.10 gaseous contaminant control, S23.10 industrial processes, S23.8 materials storage, S23.8 testing, S23.10, 11 ventilation air preconditioning, S23.8 capacity, S23.2 equipment, S23.3 high-pressure, S23.10 liquid, F32.3 solid, F32.4 evaporative cooling, A51.2; S40.8 performance factor, S40.8 residential, A1.5 Dehumidifiers desiccant, S23 capacity, S23.2 commissioning, S23.8 high-pressure, S23.10 liquid, S23.3 operation, S23.7 rotary solid, S23.4 solid, S23.4 ice rinks, S24.6 indoor swimming pool, S24.4 makeup air treatment, S24.3 mechanical, S24.1 components, S24.2 psychrometrics, S24.1 types, S24.2 wraparound heat exchangers, S24.7 Dehydration of eggs, R21.11 farm crops, A23.1 industrial systems for, A28.1 refrigeration systems, R45.1 Density fluids, F3.1 modeling, R9.6 Dental facilities, A7.14 Desiccants, F32.1; S23.1 adsorption, S23.1 cosorption of water vapor and air contaminants, F32.5 dehumidification, S23.1 glycols, S23.2 isotherms, F32.5 life, F32.5 liquid, S23.2, 3 lithium chloride, S23.2 materials, F32.1 refrigerant systems, R6.5 equilibrium curves, R6.4 moisture, R6.3 types liquid absorbents, F32.3 solid adsorbents, F32.4 wheel, S23.4 Desuperheaters air conditioners, unitary, S48.4 in ammonia refrigeration, R3.3 condensers, evaporative, S38.16 heat pumps, unitary, S48.4 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications Composite Index Dew-point analysis, F27.8 method, F25.13 Dew-point method, F25.13 Diamagnetism, and superconductivity, R38.5 Diesel fuel, F28.8 Diffusers, air, sound control, A47.8 Diffusion coefficient, F6.2 eddy, F6.7 moisture flow, F25.10 molecular, F6.1 space air, F20.1 Diffusivity thermal, of foods, R9.17 water vapor, F25.2 Dilution exhaust, F24.11 smoke, A52.4 ventilation, A29.2; A45.5 Dining halls, in justice facilities, A8.4 DIR. See Dispersive infrared (DIR) Direct digital control (DDC), F7.4, 10 Direct numerical simulation (DNS), turbulence modeling, F13.4; F24.10 Dirty bombs. See Chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents Discharge coefficients, in fluid flow, F3.9 Dispersive infrared (DIR), F7.9 Display cases, R46.1, 4 District heating and cooling, S11 applicability, S11.1 central plants boiler, S11.3 chiller, A46.4; S11.1, 4 distribution design, S11.5 emission control, S11.4 equipment, S11.3 heating medium, S11.3 thermal storage, S11.4 combined heat and power (CHP), S7.44 components, S11.1 consumer interconnections chilled water, S11.4, 19, 32 components, S11.28 direct connection, S11.27 flow control, S11.29 hot water, S11.31 indirect, with heat exchangers, S11.28 steam, S11.19, 30 temperature differential control, S11.33 costs, A36.9 distribution system aboveground systems, S11.18, 19 condensate drainage and return, S11.7, 19 conduits, S11.22, 24 constant-flow, S11.5 construction, S11.18 entry pits, S11.25 hydraulic design, S11.6 insulation economical thickness, S11.17 pipe, S11.8, 17, 21 pipe, S11.7 thermal design conditions, S11.8 underground systems, S11.20 valve vaults, S11.25 variable-flow, S11.5 F = 2009 Fundamentals I.13 water hammer, S11.7 economics, S11.2 geothermal heating systems, A32.8 heating conversion to, S11.32 heat transfer analysis, S11.9 ground to air, S11.11 pipes in air, S11.17 buried trenches or tunnels, S11.15 shallow trenches, S11.16 single buried pipe, S11.11 soil temperature calculation, S11.10 two pipes buried, S11.13 metering, S11.33 pressure losses, S11.7 thermal storage, A34.7, 17; S11.4; S50.7, 17 water systems, S11.1 d-limonene, F31.13 DNS. See Direct numerical simulation (DNS) Docks, ship, A3.10 Doors air exchange, F16.26 U-factors, F27.8 Dormitories air conditioning, A5.8 design criteria, A5.1 energy systems, A5.1 load characteristics, A5.1 service water heating, A49.12, 15, 19 Draft burners, S30.1, S30.14 chimney, S34.1 available, S34.1, 3 theoretical, S34.2, 3 comfort affected by, F9.14 cooling towers, S39.3, 5 Drag, in fluid flow, F3.5 Driers, R6.6. (See also Dryers) Drip station, steam systems, S11.7 Dryers. (See also Driers) commercial and industrial adsorption, S23.10, 11 agitated-bed, A28.6 calculations, A28.2 conduction, A28.3 constant-moisture solvent, A28.6 convection, A28.4 dielectric, A28.4 drying time determination, A28.1 flash, A28.6 fluidized-bed, A28.6 freeze drying, A28.6 mechanism, A28.1 microwave, A28.4 psychrometrics, A28.1 radiant infrared, A28.3 selection, A28.3 superheated vapor, A28.6 tunnel, A28.5 ultraviolet (UV), A28.3 vacuum drying, A28.6 desiccant, high-pressure, S23.10 farm crops, A23.1 Drying air, S23.11 desiccant, high-pressure, S23.10, 11 dew point control, S23.11 farm crops, A23.1 gases, S23.11 DTW. See Dual-temperature water (DTW) system Dual-duct systems all-air systems, S4.12 control, A46.19 terminal boxes, A46.16 testing, adjusting, balancing, A37.4 Dual-temperature water (DTW) system, S12.1 DuBois equation, F9.3 Duct design all-air systems, S4.10 Bernoulli equation, F21.1 commercial, small applications, S9.10 computer analysis, A39.6 Darcy equation, F21.6 Darcy-Weisbach equation, F21.11 design considerations, space pressure relationships, F21.13 duct fitting database, F21.9 dynamic losses duct fitting database, F21.9 local loss coefficients, F21.9 fan-system interface, F21.11 fitting loss coefficients duct fitting database, F21.9 flexible ducts, F21.9 tables, F21.26-66 friction losses, F21.6 head, F21.2 industrial exhaust systems; S29.28 methods, F21.16 noise, F21.16 pressure, F21.2 residential, S9.8 roughness factors, F21.6 stack effect, F21.2 testing, adjusting, and balancing, F21.16 Ducts acoustical lining, A47.15; S18.4 in hospitals, A7.13 airflow measurement in, A37.2 antimicrobial, S18.5 classifications, S18.1 cleaning, S18.2 construction codes, S18.1 commercial, S18.2 acoustical treatment, S18.4 hangers, S18.4 materials, S18.2 plenums and apparatus casings, S18.4 industrial, S18.4 hangers, S18.5 materials, S18.4 kitchen exhaust, S18.5 master specifications, S18.6 outdoor ducts, S18.6 residential, S18.2 seismic qualification, S18.6 sheet metal welding, S18.6 standards, S18.1 commercial, S18.2 industrial, S18.4 residential, S18.2 thermal insulation, S18.6 underground, S18.6 desiccant dehumidifiers, S23.7 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications I.14 efficiency testing, S9.11 fabric, S18.5 fibrous glass, S18.3 flat oval, F21.7; S18.3 flexible, S18.3 fluid flow, F3.1 forced-air systems, small, S9.2, 8 friction chart, F21.7 industrial exhaust systems, A30.5 insulation; F23.12 leakage; S18.2 noise in, A47.7 noncircular, F21.7 plastic, S18.5 rectangular, F21.7; S18.2, 5 road tunnels, A13.8 roughness factors, F21.6 round, S18.2, 4 ships, A11.3 sound attenuation, A47.12 control, F8.12 transmission, A47.20 velocity measurement in, F36.18 vibration control, A47.46 security concerns, A58.6 Dust mites, F25.14 Dusts, S28.1 synthetic, S28.2 Dynamometers, A15.1 Earth, stabilization, R36.3, 4 Earthquakes, seismic restraint design, A54.1 Economic analysis, A36 computer analysis, A36.11 life-cycle cost analyses, A36.9 present value (worth), A36.10 simple payback, A36.9 Economic coefficient of performance (ECOP), S7.50 Economics. (See also Costs) district heating and cooling, S11.2 energy management planning, A35.2 energy recovery equipment, S25.22 evaporative cooling, A51.15, 17 indoor gaseous contaminant control, A45.13 insulation thickness, pipe, S11.17 laboratory systems, A14.19 owning and operating costs, A36.1 Economizers air-side, F16.18 compressors, single-screw, S37.16 control, A41.26 humidification load calculation, S21.3 kitchen ventilation, A31.21 water-side, S2.3 ECOP. See Economic coefficient of performance (ECOP) ECS. See Environmental control system (ECS) Eddy diffusivity, F6.7 Educational facilities, A6 air conditioning, A6.1 service water heating, A49.21 EER. See Energy efficiency ratio (EER) Effectiveness, heat transfer, F4.21 Effective radiant flux (ERF), A53.2 Efficiency air conditioners room, S49.2 F = 2009 Fundamentals 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals unitary, S48.5 boilers, S31.5 combustion, F28.13 compressors centrifugal, S37.32 positive-displacement, S37.3 reciprocating, S37.8 rotary, S37.12 scroll, S37.26 single-screw, S37.18 fins, F4.4 forced-air systems, small, S9.11 furnaces, S9.12, 9 heat pumps, unitary, S48.5 industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S29.3 infrared heaters, S15.3 motors, S44.2 pumps, centrifugal, S43.6 refrigerating, F2.3 Eggs, R21 composition, R21.1 dehydration, R21.11 processing plant sanitation, R21.12 products, R21.9 shell eggs packaging, R21.8 processing, R21.5 refrigeration, R21.5 spoilage prevention, R21.4 storage, R21.8 structure, R21.1 transportation, R21.8 storage, R21.1 thermal properties, R9.1 EIFS. See Exterior insulation finishing system (EIFS) Electricity billing rates, A55.12 codes, A55.15 costs, A36.4, 9 generation, on-site, A36.9 imbalance, S44.1 motor starting, A55.5; S44.7 performance, A55.1 power quality variations, A55.7 principles, A55.2 safety, A55.1 voltage, A55.1 measurement, F36.25 Electric thermal storage (ETS), A34.12; S50.12 Electrostatic precipitators, S28.7; S29.7 Elevators, smoke control, A52.11 Emissions, pollution, F28.7 Emissivity, F4.2 Emittance, thermal, F25.2 Enclosed vehicular facilities, A13 Energy audit, A35.9 balance comfort, F9.2, 16 refrigeration systems, R43.3 conservation air conditioners, room, S49.3 building envelopes, A43.1 building supervisory control, A41.1 clean spaces, A16.14 educational facilities, A6.1, 2 farm crop drying, A23.3 greenhouses, A22.15 hospitals, A7.13 industrial environments, A29.6 infrared heaters, S15.1 kitchen ventilation, A31.21 pumps, centrifugal, S43.13 refrigerators‚ commercial, R47.7 temperature and ventilation control, A46.21 textile processing, A19.7 thermal insulation, F23.1 consumption benchmarking, A35.7 building HVAC, control effect on, A41.7 emergency reduction, A35.17 gaseous contaminant control, A45.13 humidifiers, S21.3 United States, F34.6 world, F34.5 costs, A36.4 efficiency in commercial and food service refrigerators, R47.7 energy efficiency ratio (EER), S49.2 and humidity, F25.15 emergency use reduction, A35.17 estimating, F19 analysis, F19.3 application to cooling and dehumidifying coils, F19.11 degree-day and bin methods, F19.17 annual degree-day, F19.18 variable base, F19.19 balance point temperature, F19.18 correlation, F19.22 degree-day, F19.21 forecasting, A41.31 general considerations, F19.1 integration of systems, F19.23 models, F19.1 monthly degree-day, F19.20 seasonal efficiency of furnaces, F19.19 simulating, F19.22 software selection, F19.3 field survey audit, A37.17 forecasting building needs, A41.31 management, A35 cost control, A35.11, 13 emergency energy use reduction, A35.17 energy audits, A35.9 energy conservation opportunity (ECO), comparing, A35.14 implementation, A35.17 improving discretionary operations, A35.11 resource evaluation, A35.2 modeling, F19 calculating, F19.3, 7, 10 classical approach, F19.1 data-driven approach, F19.1 data-driven models, F19.2, 24 forward models, F19.1 general considerations, F19.1 in integrated building design, A57.4 system controls, F19.23 monitoring, A40 applications, A40.1-5 data, A40.5-14 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications Composite Index design and implementation methodology, A40.6 documentation, A40.7, 14 planning, A40.5, 14 quality assurance, A40.5, 14 production, world, F34.4 recovery. (See also Heat recovery) air-to-air, S25; S40.4 in chemical industry, R37.4 industrial environments, A29.6 renewable, F35.2 resources, F34; F35.2 demand-side management (DSM), F34.3 electricity, F34.1 fossil fuel, F34.1 integrated resource planning (IRP), F34.3 nonrenewable, F34.1 renewable, F34.1 United State, F34.6 world, F34.5 savings verification, A40.2 self-imposed budgets, F35.5 wheels, S25.10 Energy efficiency ratio (EER), S49.2 Energy savings performance contracting (ESPC), A36.8 Engines, S7 air systems, compressed, S7.13 applications centrifugal compressors, S7.46 heat pumps, S7.46 reciprocating compressors, S7.45 screw compressors, S7.46 continuous-duty standby, S7.4 controls and instruments, S7.15 exhaust systems, S7.14 expansion engines, S7.31 fuels, F28.8 cetane number, F28.8 heating values, S7.11 selection, S7.10 heat recovery exhaust gas, S7.35 jacket water, S7.34 lubricant, S7.35 reciprocating, S7.34 turbocharger, S7.35 heat release, A15.1 jacket water system, S7.13 lubrication, S7.12 noise control, S7.15 performance, S7.10 reciprocating, S7.9 vibration control, S7.15 water-cooled, S7.13 Engine test facilities, A15 air conditioning, A15.1 dynamometers, A15.1 exhaust, A15.2 noise levels, A15.4 ventilation, A15.1, 4 Enhanced tubes. See Finned-tube heat transfer coils Enthalpy calculation, F2.4 definition, F2.2 foods, R9.7 F = 2009 Fundamentals I.15 recovery loop, twin-tower, S25.14 water vapor, F6.9 wheels, S25.10 Entropy, F2.1 calculation, F2.4 Environmental control animals. See Animal environments humans. See Comfort plants. See Plant environments retail food stores equipment and control, R46.21 store ambient effect, R46.3 Environmental control system (ECS), A10 Environmental health, F10 biostatistics, F10.2 epidemiology, F10.2 exposure, F10.5 industrial hygiene, F10.3 microbiology/mycology, F10.3 physical hazards electrical hazards, F10.14 electromagnetic radiation, F10.16 noise, F10.16 thermal comfort, F10.12 diseases affected by, F10.14 vibrations, F10.14 standards, F10.10 Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) contaminants, A45.2 secondhand smoke, F11.17 sidestream smoke, F10.6 superheated vapors, F11.2 Equipment vibration, A47.38; F8.18 ERF. See Effective radiant flux (ERF) ESPC. See Energy savings performance contracting (ESPC) Ethylene glycol, in hydronic systems, S12.23 ETS. See Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); Electric thermal storage (ETS) Evaporation, in tubes forced convection, F5.4 equations, F5.6 natural convection, F5.1 Evaporative coolers. (See also Refrigerators) liquid (See also Evaporators) in chillers, A1.4; S38.17; S42.5, 8, 13 Evaporative cooling, A51 applications air cleaning, A51.2; S40.8 animal environments, A22.4; A51.14 combustion turbines, S7.21 commercial, A51.9 dehumidification, A51.2; S40.8 gas turbines, A51.13 greenhouses, A22.13; A51.15 humidification, A51.2; S40.7 industrial air conditioning, A12.7 area cooling, A51.12 process cooling, A51.13 spot cooling, A51.12 laundries, A51.13 makeup air pretreatment, S40.6 motors, A51.12 power generation facilities, A51.13 precooling, S40.6 produce storage, A51.14 residential, A51.9 wood and paper products facilities, A51.13 cooling towers, S39.1 direct, A51.1, 2; S40.1 economics, A51.15 entering air condition, A51.17 equipment direct, S40.1 indirect, S40.2 maintenance, S40.8 two-stage, S40.5 exhaust requirement, A51.10 heat recovery and, A51.7; S25.21; S40.4 indirect, A51.1, 3; S25.21; S40.2 psychrometrics, A51.1, 11, 16, 17 staged booster refrigeration, A51.8, 16 two-stage (indirect/direct), A51.10, 16; S40.5 water treatment, A48.9; S40.9 Legionella pneumophila, S40.9 Evaporators. (See also Coolers, liquid) air conditioners, room, S49.2 ammonia refrigeration systems equipment, R3.2 piping, R3.18 automobile air conditioning, A9.6, 11 chemical industry refrigeration, R37.7 flooded, F5.4 halocarbon refrigeration systems, piping, R2.28 liquid overfeed systems, R1.5 Exfiltration, F16.1 Exhaust animal buildings, A22.6 clean spaces, A16.13, 15 engines heat recovery, S7.35 installation recommendations, S7.14 engine test facilities, A15.2 industrial environments, A12.8; A30.1 kitchens, A31.9, 28 laboratories, A14.3, 9 stack height, A14.13 photographic processing areas, A20.3 stacks buildings, A44.1 design strategies, A44.1 exhaust dilution prediction equations, A44.10 exhaust velocity, A44.1 industrial exhaust systems, A30.7 location relative to air intake, A44.2 wake downwash, A44.2 vehicular facilities, enclosed, A13.35 Exhibit buildings, temporary, A4.8 Exhibit cases, A21.5, 16 Exhibition centers, A4.5 smoke management, A52.12 Expansion joints and devices, S45.10 bends, S45.11 joints district heating and cooling, S11.18 packed, S45.13 packless, S45.13 loops, S45.11 Expansion tanks, S11.4 hydronic systems, S14.4 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications I.16 closed, S12.4 diaphragm, S12.4 expansion chamber, S12.4 functions of, S12.4, 11 open, S12.4 sizing equations, S12.5 secondary coolant systems, R4.3 solar energy systems, A33.12 Explosions. See Chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents Exterior insulation finishing system (EIFS), A43.4 Fairs, A4.8 Family courts, A8.3. (See also Juvenile facilities) Fan-coil units, S5.4 capacity control, S5.6 maintenance, S5.6 performance under varying load, S5.10 types, S5.5 ventilation, S5.5 wiring, S5.5 Fans, S20 air conditioners, room, S49.2 all-air systems, S4.4, 6, 9 animal environments, A22.6 control, A46.7; S20.9 cooling tower capacity control, A41.12; S39.8 draft, S34.31 fixed- versus variable-speed, A41.8 flow control, S20.9; S44.8 furnaces, S32.2 industrial exhaust systems, A30.7 isolation, S20.9 kitchen exhaust, A31.12 laws, S20.4 operating principles, S20.1 parallel operation, S20.7 plenum, S20.1 plug, S20.1 pressure relationships, S20.5 effect of duct system on, S20.6 rating, S20.4 selection, A47.5; S20.7 ships, naval surface, A11.4 sound level, A47.3; S20.8 system effects, S20.7 testing, S20.4 types, S20.1 unstable operation, A46.10 variable- versus fixed-speed, A41.8 vehicular facilities, enclosed, A13.31 Farm crops aeration, A23.4, 9 dryeration, A23.4 drying, combination, A23.4 corn, A23.1 cotton, A23.8 deep-bed, A23.4 energy conservation, A23.3 equipment, A23.2 full-bin, A23.5 hay, A23.7 layer, A23.6 peanuts, A23.8 rice, A23.9 shallow-layer, A23.3 F = 2009 Fundamentals 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals soybeans, A23.7 specific, A23.7 microbial growth, A23.1 recirculation, A23.3 storing, A23 grain aeration, A23.9 moisture migration, A23.9 Faults, system frequency and costs, A38.5 reasons for detecting, A38.6 f-Chart method, sizing heating and cooling systems, A33.20 Fenestration. (See also Windows) air leakage, F15.50 attachments, F15.30 building envelopes, A43.6; F15.1 codes, F15.59 components, F15.1 condensation resistance, F15.54 cooling load, F18.14 draperies, F15.32 durability, F15.58 energy flow, F15.2 energy performance, annual, F15.54 exterior shading, F15.1 glazing (glass), F15.1 infiltration, A43.6 occupant comfort, F15.56 opaque elements, F15.29 shading devices, F15.30 solar heat gain, A43.6; F15.13, 17 standards, F15.59 thermal radiation, F15.16 U-factors, F15.4, 6 Fick’s law, F6.1 and moisture flow, F25.10 Filters, air, S28. (See also Air cleaners) air conditioners, room, S49.4 aircraft, A10.4, 9 clean spaces, A16.3, 7, 10 demisters, A26.7 desiccant dehumidifiers, S23.7 dry, extended surface, S28.6 electronic, S28.5, 7 furnaces, S32.2 high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, A26.3; S28.3, 5, 7; S29.2 tests, S28.3 hospitals, A7.2 industrial air-conditioning, A12.7 industrial exhaust gas fabric, S29.10 granular bed, S29.14 installation, S28.9 kitchens, A31.3, 9 laboratories, A14.9 maintenance, S28.8 nuclear facilities, A26.3, 7 panel, S28.6 places of assembly, A4.1 printing plants, A18.4 renewable media, moving-curtain, S28.7 residential, A1.5 safety requirements, S28.12 selection, S28.8 ships, A11.4 standards, S28.3, 5 test methods, S28.2 types, S28.6 ultralow-penetration air (ULPA) filters, S28.5, 7; S29.2 viscous impingement, S28.6, 7 Filters, water, A48.7 Finned-tube heat-distributing units, S35.1, 5 design, S35.3 nonstandard condition corrections, S35.3 rating, S35.3 Finned-tube heat transfer coils, F4.24 energy recovery loops, S25.11 two-phase flow in, F5.14 Fins, F4.4 Fire/smoke management. See Smoke management Firearm laboratories, A8.6 Fireplaces, S33.4 chimney design, S34.23 Fire safety clean space exhaust systems, A16.13 fire and smoke dampers, A52.8 industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S29.29 insulation fire resistance ratings, F23.6 justice facilities, A8.3, 6 kitchens, A31.22 laboratories, A14.11 nuclear facilities, A26.2 penetration fire stopping, A52.1 smoke management, A52.1 thermal insulation, F23.5 Fish, R19 fresh, R19.1 frozen, R19.4 thermal properties, R9.1 Fitness facilities. (See also Gymnasiums) in justice facilities, A8.5 Fittings duct fitting database, F21.9 effective length, F3.8 halocarbon refrigeration systems, R2.10 loss coefficients, F3.8 local, F21.9 pipe sizing, F22.1, 8 standards, S45.2 tees, F22.8 Fixed-guideway vehicles, A9.18 (See also Masstransit systems) Fixture units, A49.1, 23 pipe sizing, F22.9 Flammability limits, gaseous fuels, F28.1 Flash tank, steam systems, S10.14 Floors coverings panel systems, S6.7 temperature comfort, F9.15 slabs, heat loss, F17.11, F18.31 Flowers, cut air transport, R32.1, 3 cooling, R15.11 refigerators, R47.3 storage, temperatures, R11.12 Flowmeters, A37.12; F36.18 bypass spring impact meters, A37.13 in conduits, F3.13 devices, A37.12 district heating and cooling systems, S11.33 flow nozzles, F36.19 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications Composite Index hoods, F36.19 orifice plates, A37.12; F36.19 positive-displacement meters, F36.22 rotameters, F36.21 turbine meters, A37.13; F36.22 ultrasonic, A37.13 velocity impact meters, A37.13 venturi meters, A37.13; F36.19 Fluid dynamics computations, F13.1 Fluid flow, F3 analysis, F3.6 Bernoulli equation, F3.6 kinetic energy factor, F3.2 pressure variation, F3.2 boundary layer, F3.4 cavitation, F3.13 choking, F3.13 compressible, F3.13 expansion factor, F3.12 pressure, F3.12 continuity, F3.2 Darcy-Weisbach equation, F3.6 devices, F3.5 discharge coefficients, F3.9 drag, F3.5 friction factors, F3.6 incompressible, F3.9 laminar, F3.3 measurement, A37.11, F3.10; F36.19 noise, F3.13 nonisothermal effects, F3.5 parabolic velocity profile, Poiseuille, F3.3 patterns, F3.4 pipe friction, F3.6, F3.8 Poiseuille, F3.3 properties, F3.1 Reynolds number, Re, F3.3 section change losses, F3.8 sensors, F7.10 separation, F3.4 turbulent, F3.3 two-phase boiling, F5.1 condensation, F5.8 evaporation, F5.2, 4 pressure drop, F5.11 unsteady, F3.11 valve losses, F3.8, 9 vena contracta, F3.4 wall friction, F3.3 Food. (See also specific foods) codes, R46.2 cooling and freezing times, R10.1 cooling, R10.1 equivalent heat transfer dimensionality, R10.4 estimating algorithms, R10.5 irregular shapes, R10.3 slabs, cylinders, and spheres, R10.2 freezing estimating algorithms, R10.12 geometric considerations equivalent heat transfer dimensionality, R10.9 equivalent sphere diameter, R10.12 mean conducting path, R10.12 phase change, R10.8 F = 2009 Fundamentals I.17 Plank’s equation, R10.7 precooling, R10.8 subcooling, R10.8 industrial freezing methods, R16.1 long-term storage, R27.7 microbial growth control, R12.3 generalized, R12.1 requirements, R12.2 plants, R27.3 poultry products freezing, R18.5 refrigeration, R18.1 processing facilities contamination prevention, R12.3 dairy, R20.1 fruits, R27.5 main dishes, R27.1 meat, R17.1 organism destruction, R12.4 potato products, R27.5 poultry, R18.1 precooked foods, R27.1 refrigeration systems, R27.3, 4, 6 regulations and standards, R12.5 sanitation, R12.4 vegetables, R27.3 refrigeration dairy products, R20 eggs and egg products, R21.1 fishery products, R19 fruits, fresh, R22; R23 meat products, R17 vegetables, R24 refrigerators commercial, R47 retail food store, R46.1 walk-in, R46.12 storage requirements canned foods, R11.11 citrus fruit, R23.3 commodities, R11.1 dried foods, R11.11 fruit, R22 thermal properties, R9 enthalpy, R9.7 heat of respiration, R9.18, 19, 20 ice fraction, R9.2 surface heat transfer coefficient, R9.25 thermal conductivity, R9.9, 12, 16 thermal diffusivity, R9.17 transpiration coefficient, R9.19, 25 water content, initial freezing point, R9.2 Food service refrigerators for, R47.1 vending machines, R47.5 service water heating, A49.13, 19 Forced-air systems, residential, A1.1 multifamily, A1.5 Forensic labs, A8.5 autopsy rooms, A8.5, 6 critical spaces, A8.3, 6 firearm labs, A8.5, 6 intake air quality, A8.6 Fouling factor condensers, water-cooled, S38.4 coolers, liquid, S41.4 Foundations insulation, A43.2 moisture control, A43.2 radon control, A43.3 Fountains, Legionella pneumophila control, A48.7 Fourier’s law, and heat transfer, F25.5 Four-pipe systems, S5.3 load, S12.20 room control, S5.15 zoning, S5.15 Framing materials, F15.2 solar gain, F15.18 Freeze drying, A28.6 biological materials, R40.4 Freeze prevention. (See also Freeze protection systems) condensers, evaporative, S38.15 coolers, liquid, S41.5 cooling tower piping, S13.3 sump water, S39.10 energy recovery equipment, S25.7 hydronic systems, S12.23 insulation for, F23.3 solar energy systems, A33.24; S36.2, 17 Freeze protection systems, A50.17, 19 Freezers blast, R14.10; R16.1; R17.15, R47.3 household, R48.1 cabinet construction, R48.3 defrosting, R48.6 efficiency, R48.1 refrigeration systems, R48.5 testing, R48.9 industrial, R16.1 walk-in, R47.3 Freezing beverages, R10.7 biomedical applications, R40.1 foods bakery products, R28.5 egg products, R21.9 fish, R19.5 freezing time calculations, R10.7 ice cream, R20.15 meat products, R17.16 poultry products, R18.5 processed and prepared food, R27.1 industrial, R16.1 soil, R36.3, 4 Friction, in fluid flow conduit, F3.6 wall, F3.3 Friction losses, F21.7 duct design, F21.6 fittings, F22.1, 8 roughness factors, F21.6 valves, F22.1, 8 Fruit juice, R25 Fruits dried storage, R29.7 thermal properties, R9.1 fresh air transport, R32.1 apples, storage, A51.14; R22.1 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications I.18 apricots, R22.13 avocados, R23.8 bananas, R23.5 berries, R22.13 cherries, sweet, R22.12 citrus, A51.14; R23.1 cooling, R15.1 deciduous tree, R22 desiccation, R11.1 deterioration rate, R11.1 display refrigerators, R46.8 figs, R22.13 grapes, R22.8 mangoes, R23.8 nectarines, R22.12 peaches, R22.12 pears, R22.6 pineapples, R23.8 plums, R22.11 storage diseases, R22.1 strawberries, R22.13 thermal properties, R9.1 vine fruits, R22.1 frozen, R27.5 Fuel cells, combined heat and power (CHP), S7.22 Fuels, F28 classification, F28.5 combustion, F28 engines, S7.10 flammability limits, F28.1 gaseous, F28.5 heating value, F28.3; S7.11 ignition temperature, F28.2 liquid, F28.6 oil. See Oil, fuel systems, S7.11 solid, F28.8 turbines, S7.20 Fume hoods, laboratory exhaust, A14.3 Fungal pathogens, F10.7 Furnaces, S32 air cleaners and filters, S32.2 airflow configurations, S32.3 air supply, S34.28 burners, S30.1; S32.2 casings, S32.1 codes, S32.10 commercial, S32.5 efficiency, S32.10 components, S32.1 controls, S32.2, 5, 9 derating, S30.10 duct, S32.5 duct furnaces, S30.6 electric, S32.4, 10 fans and motors, S32.2 floor furnaces, S33.2 gas-fired, S32.1, 9 codes, S32.10 commercial, S32.5 installation, S32.10 residential, S32.1 standards, S32.11 upflow, S32.5 humidifiers, S32.2 installation, S32.10 location, S32.6 F = 2009 Fundamentals 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals natural gas, S30.11; S32.1, 4, 9 draft hoods, S32.2 residential, S32.1, 9 capacity ratings, S32.9 combustion system, S32.4 efficiency, S32.9 heat exchangers, S32.1 vent dampers, S32.2, 9 venting, S32.2; S34.19 oil, S32.4, 10 venting, S34.21 performance criteria, S32.8 propane, S32.4, 10 regulating agencies, S32.11 residential, A1.3; S32.1 annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE), S32.8 efficiency, S9.12 floor furnaces, S33.2 indoor or outdoor, S32.4 performance criteria, S32.8 selection, S32.6 selection, S32.6 standards, S32.11 stokers, S30.17 thermal storage, A34.13; S50.13 unducted, S32.5 upflow, S32.5 venting, S34.19, 21 wall furnaces, S33.1 Galleries. See Museums, galleries, archives, and libraries Garages automotive repair, A13.19 bus, A13.20 contaminant criteria, A13.17 parking, A3.10; A13.17 ventilation airflow rate, A13.17 control, A13.18 equipment, A13.31 system configuration, A13.19 residential, F16.20 Gases compressed, storage, A14.8 drying, S23.11 liquefaction, R38.6 purification, R38.16, 19 separation gaseous oxygen, R38.18 Gibbs phase rule, R38.16 Gas-fired equipment, S34. (See also Natural gas) noise, F28.17 Gas vents, S34.1 GCHP. See Ground-coupled heat pumps (GCHP) Generators absorption units, R41.1, 10 combined heat and power (CHP), S7.40 Geothermal energy, A32 corrosion control, A32.6 direct-use systems, A32.3 cooling, A32.9 equipment, A32.5 heating, A32.8 service water heating, A32.9 district heating, A32.8 geothermal fluids, A32.1 disposal, A32.4 temperature, A32.1, 3 ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems, A32.10, 27; S8.4 heat exchangers, A32.6, 26 heat pumps, A32.10 materials performance, A32.5 resources, A32.1 valves, A32.7 water wells flow rate, A32.3 pumps, A32.6, 25 terminology, A32.24 water quality testing, A32.4 Geothermal heat pumps (GHP), A32.10 Glaser method, F25.13 Glazing angular averaging, F15.15 glass, F15.1 plastic, F15.28 solar-optical properties, F15.13 spectral averaging, F15.15 spectral range, F15.16 systems, F15.15 Global warming potential (GWP), R5.1 Glycols, desiccant solution, S23.2 Green design, and sustainability, F35.1 Greenhouses. (See also Plant environments) evaporative cooling, A51.15 plant environments, A22.10 Grids, for computational fluid dynamics, F13.4 Ground-coupled heat pumps (GCHP) closed-loop ground-source, A32.10 heat exchanger, S48.12 Ground-source heat pumps (GSHP), A32.1, 9 Groundwater heat pumps (GWHP), A32.23 GSHP. See Ground-source heat pumps (GSHP) Guard stations, in justice facilities, A8.4 GWHP. See Groundwater heat pumps (GWHP) Gymnasiums, A4.5; A6.4 HACCP. See Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) Halocarbon coolants, secondary, F31.12 refrigerant systems, R2.1 Hartford loop, S10.3 Hay, drying, A23.7 Hazard analysis and control, F10.3 Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP), R12.4 Hazen-Williams equation, F22.1 HB. See Heat balance (HB) Health airborne pathogens, F10.7 asbestosis, F10.4 carbon monoxide, F10.11 coalworker’s pneumoconiosis, F10.4 in justice facilities, A8.3 Legionella pneumophila, F10.6 and moisture problems, F25.14 silicosis, F10.4 synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs), F10.5 Health care facilities, A7. (See also specific types) R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications Composite Index Heat flow rates, F18.1 latent respiratory loss, F9.4 skin loss, F9.3, 10 sensible respiratory, F9.4 skin, F9.3 space extraction rate, F18.2 timers, S10.13 Heat and moisture control, F27.1 Heat balance, S8.19 air, F18.18 conduction transfer function, F18.19 cooling load calculation method, F18.2, 15 equations, F18.19 input procedure, F18.20 model, F18.15 studies, S8.19 surface, F18.15 Heat capacity, F25.1 Heat control, F27 Heaters, S33 automobiles, A9.5 catalytic, S33.1 control, S33.2, 4 direct-contact, S14.6 electric, S15.2; S33.3 fireplaces, S33.4 gas, S15.1; S30.6; S33.1 control valves, S33.2 efficiency requirements, S33.2 infrared, S15.1 room, S33.1 thermostats, S33.2 wall furnaces, S33.1 hot-water, S27.4 hydronic snow melting, A50.12 infrared, S15.1; S30.6 indirect, S30.7 oil-fired, S15.3 radiant, A53.1, 4, 8 in-space, S33.1 kerosene, S33.3 oil, S15.3; S33.3 radiant, S30; S33 electric, S15.2 gas-fired, S15.1; S30.6, 7; S33.1 infrared, S30.6 oil-fired infrared, S15.3 panels, S33.4 quartz, S33.4 residential, S33.1 room, S33.1 solid fuel, S33.4 standards, S33.6, 7 steam, S27.4 stoves, S33.5 testing, S33.7 unit, S27.4; S30.6 control, S27.7 location, S27.6 maintenance, S27.8 piping, S27.7 ratings, S27.6 selection, S27.4 sound level, S27.6 types, S27.4 F = 2009 Fundamentals I.19 ventilators, S27.1 water, A49 Heat exchangers, S47 air-to-air energy recovery, S25.1 heat pipes, S25.12 rotary enthalpy wheels, S25.10 thermosiphon, S25.14 animal environments, A22.4 antifreeze effect on, S12.23 chimneys, S34.31 counterflow, F4.21; S47.1 district heating and cooling, S11.28 double-wall construction, S47.3 effectiveness, capacity rate ratio, F4.21 enhanced surfaces, F5.14 fouling, S47.5 furnaces, S32.1 geothermal energy systems, A32.6, 26 halocarbon refrigeration systems, R2.28 heat transfer, S47.1 installation, S47.6 liquid suction, R2.28 number of transfer units (NTU), F4.21 parallel flow, F4.21 plate, F4.23; R2.29; S41.2 brazed, S11.29; S47.3 components, S47.4 gasketed, S11.28; S47.3 plate-and-frame, S11.28 pressure drop in, F5.13 welded, S11.29; S47.3 selection, S47.5 shell-and-coil, R2.29; S11.29; S47.2 shell-and-tube, R2.29; S11.29; S41.1, 2 components, S47.4 converters, S47.2 straight-tube, S47.2 tube-in-tube, R2.29; S41.1 U-tube, S47.2 solar energy, S36.14 systems solar energy, A33.12 steam, S10.3 water, medium- and high-temperature, S14.8 wraparound, S24.7 Heat flow, F25. (See also Heat transfer) and airflow, F25.12 through flat building component, F25.6 hygrothermal modeling, F25.13 and moisture, 12 paths, series and parallel, F25.7 Heat flux, F25.1 radiant panels, S6.2 Heat gain. (See also Load calculations) appliances, F18.6 calculation solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), F18.17 standard air values, F18.13 control, F25; F26; F27 electric motors, F18.6 engine test facilities, dynamometers, A15.1 fenestration, F18.14 floors, F18.25 hospital and laboratory equipment, F18.8 humans, F18.3 laboratories, A14.2 latent, permeable building materials, F18.14 lighting, F18.3 office equipment, F18.8 radiant panels, S6.7 space, F18.1 Heating absorption equipment, R41.1 animal environments, A22.4 equipment, S3.1; S26-S33; S48 baseboard units, S35.1 boilers, S31.1 convectors, S35.1 finned-tube units, S35.1 furnaces, S32.1 radiators, S35.1 geothermal energy systems, A32.8 greenhouses, A22.11 industrial environments, A12.6 infrared, S15.1 radiant, A53.1, 8 nonresidential, S12.16 places of assembly, A4.1 plant growth chambers, A22.17 power plants, A25.10 residential, A1.1 solar energy, S36.1 systems all-air, S4.2, 5 selection, S1.1, 8 small forced-air, S9.1 dynamic simulation model (HOUSE), S9.12 solar energy, A33.16, 26 steam, S10.1 thermal storage, A34.11; S50.11 Heating load calculations, F18.28 central plant, S3.2 residential calculations crawlspace heat loss, F17.11 Heating values of fuels, F28.3, 7, 9 Heat loss. (See also Load calculations) basement, F18.31 crawlspaces, F17.11 floor slabs, F18.31 latent heat loss, F17.12, F18.32 radiant panels, S6.7 Heat pipes, air-to-air energy recovery, S25.12 Heat pumps absorption, R41.3 air-source, S48.1, 8 add-on, S48.9 air-to-air, S8.4, 9 air-to-water, S8.6, 9 balance point, S48.9 compressor selection, S48.10 control, S48.10 defrost cycle, S48.9 installation, S48.10 refrigerant circuits, S48.10 selection, S48.9 boosters, A34.13; S50.13 cascade systems, S8.6 components, S8.6 compression cycles, S8.2 control, A46.16; S8.7, 8 efficiency, S48.5 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications I.20 engine-driven, S7.46 ground-source ground-coupled, A32.10, 12; S8.14; S48.12 heat transfer analysis, A32.13 horizontal systems, A32.11, 18 vertical systems, A32.10, 12 water loop, S8.14 groundwater, A32.11, 23; S48.12 surface water, A32.11, 27; S48.12 terminology, A32.10 heat recovery heat pumps, S8.9 design principles, S8.12 waste heat recovery, S8.13 heat sources and sinks, S8.2, 4 ice-source, R34.6 industrial process, S8.8 closed-cycle systems, S8.9 design, S8.12 heat recovery, S8.8, 9 open-cycle systems, S8.11 semi-open-cycle systems, S8.11 packaged terminal heat pumps (PTHPs), S49.5 testing, S49.7 residential, A1.2 room, S49.1 split systems, S48.1 supplemental heating, S8.8 through-the-wall, S2.3 types, S8.4 unitary, S48.1 application, S48.1 certification, S48.6 codes, S48.5 desuperheaters, S48.4 installation, S48.2 space conditioning/water heating, S48.4 standards, S48.5 types, S48.2 water heaters, A49.3, 25 water-source certification, S48.12 design, S48.12 entering water temperature, S48.12 groundwater, A32.11, 23; S48.12 indirect systems, A32.26 surface water, A32.11, 27 closed-loop heat pumps, A32.28; S48.12 lake heat transfer, A32.27 open-loop heat pumps, A32.27 testing, S48.12 water loop, S8.14; S48.12 water-to-air, S8.4 water-to-water, S8.6 window-mounted, S2.3 Heat recovery. (See also Energy, recovery) balanced heat recovery, S8.18 cascade systems, S8.13 coils, S26.3 combined heat and power (CHP), S7.33 combustion turbines, S7.37 evaporative cooling, A51.7; S25.21; S40.4 heat-activated chillers, S7.39 heat balance, S8.19 heat pumps, S8.9 industrial exhaust systems, A30.7 kitchen ventilation, A31.21 F = 2009 Fundamentals 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals laboratories, A14.19 liquid chillers, S42.2, 12 multiple buildings, S8.21 reciprocating engines, S7.34 retail food store refrigeration, R46.18 service water heating, A49.4 steam systems, S10.3, 14 turbines, S7.38 supermarkets, A2.4 terminology, S8.1 waste heat, S8.13 water loop heat pump systems, S8.14 Heat storage. See Thermal storage Heat stress index (HSI), A29.5; F9.21 industrial environments, A29.4 thermal standards, A29.4 Heat transfer, F4; F26. (See also Heat flow) across air space, F25.6 antifreeze effect on water, S12.23 apparent transfer coefficient, F25.6 augmentation active, F4.27 passive, F4.24 coefficients, F15.5 condensation, F5.9 convective, F9.7 convective evaporation, F5.6 evaporative, F9.8 foods, R9.25 Lewis relation, F9.4 low-temperature, R39.9 overall, F4.25 coils air-cooling and dehumidifying, S22.6 air-heating, S26.4 condensers, S38.2 water-cooled, S38.2 conductance, F4.3 conduction, F4.1, 3 shape factors, F4.4 control, F25; F26; F27 convection buffer layer, F4.1 coefficient, F4.1 external, F4.17 flow, fully developed laminar, F4.17 forced, boundary layer, F4.16 free, F4.1, 18 internal, F4.17 laminar sublayer, F4.1 natural, F4.1, 18 turbulent region, F4.1 definition, F25.1 diffuse radiators, F4.15 district heating and cooling pipes, S11.9 effectiveness, F4.21 extended surfaces, F4.4 factor, friction, F4.17 film coefficient, F25.1 resistance, F25.1, 5 fins, F4.4, 7 forced convection, air coolers, F4.16 Fourier’s law, F25.5 ground, F19.7 ground loops, A32.13 heat exchangers, S47.1 insulation, F36.31 lakes, A32.27 mass transfer convection, F6.5 molecular diffusion, F6.3 simultaneous with, F6.9 cooling coils, F6.12 number of transfer units (NTU), F4.22 radiant balance, F4.15 radiation actual, gray, F4.2, 12 angle factor, F4.13 Beer’s law, F4.16 blackbody, F4.11 spectral emissive power, F4.12 black surface, F4.2 energy transfer, F4.11 exchange between surfaces, F4.14 in gases, F4.16 gray surface, F4.12 hemispherical emissivity, F4.12 Kirchoff’s law, F4.12 monochromatic emissive power, F4.12 Stefan-Boltzmann law, F4.11 relation, F4.2 thermal, F4.2 Wien’s displacement law, F4.12 simultaneous, F6.9 snow-melting systems, A50.1 fluids, A50.10 solar energy systems, A33.11 steady-state, F25.5 terminology, F25.1 transient cooling time estimation, F4.8 cylinder, F4.9 radiation, F4.8 slab, F4.9 sphere, F4.9 transmission data, F26 water, S12.3 Heat transmission doors, F27.8 floor slabs, F18.31 properties, F26.1 windows, F27.8 Heat traps, A49.2 Helium in air, F1.1 in cryogenics, R38.1 recovery, R38.18 in leak testing, R8.2; R45.4 and thermal radiation, F4.16 High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, A26.3; S28.7; S29.2 High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization, R20.2 High-temperature water (HTW) system, S12.1 Homeland security. See Chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents Hoods draft, S32.2; S34.30 gaseous contaminant control, A45.5 industrial exhaust systems capture velocities, A30.2 compound hoods, A30.5 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications Composite Index design principles, A30.3 entry loss, A30.3 overhead hoods, A30.5 sidedraft hoods, A30.5 volumetric flow rate, A30.2 kitchen exhaust, A31.27 ductless, A31.9 recirculating systems, A31.9, 13 residential, A31.27 type I, A31.3 type II, A31.3, 8 laboratory fume, A14.3 sound control, A47.27 unidirectional, A16.7 Hospitals, A7.2 air conditioning, A7.2 air movement, A7.3 air quality, A7.2 cooling, A7.13 design criteria administration, A7.11 ancillary spaces, A7.9 autopsy rooms, A7.10 diagnostic and treatment, A7.11 infectious isolation, A7.8 intensive care units, A7.8 laboratories, A7.9 nursery suites, A7.8 nursing areas, A7.8 operating rooms, A7.5 humidity, S21.2 patient rooms, A7.8 pharmacies, A7.10 protective isolation, A7.8 recovery rooms, A7.8 service areas, A7.11 sterilizing and supply, A7.11 surgery and critical care, A7.5 energy conservation, A7.13 heating and hot-water standby, A7.12 indoor air quality (IAQ), A7.2 infection sources and control, A7.2 insulation, A7.13 Legionella pneumophila, A7.2 pressure relationships and ventilation, A7.4 smoke control, A7.5 zoning, A7.12 Hot-box method, of thermal modeling, F25.7 Hotels and motels, A5 accommodations, A5.3 back-of-the-house (BOTH) areas, A5.6 central plant, A5.7 design criteria, A5.1 guest rooms, A5.3 indoor air quality (IAQ), A5.6 load characteristics, A5.1 makeup air units, A5.7 public areas, A5.6 service water heating, showers, A49.12, 19 sound control, A5.7 systems, A5.2 Hot-gas bypass, R2.34 HOUSE dynamic simulation model, S9.12 Houses of worship, A4.3 HSI. See Heat stress, index (HSI) HTST. See High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization F = 2009 Fundamentals I.21 Humidification, S21 air washers, S40.7 all-air systems, S4.5, 9 control, A46.13, 14; S21.1 design, S21.3 direct evaporative cooling, A51.2 evaporative coolers, S40.7 load calculations, S21.4 Humidifiers, S21 all-air systems, S4.9 bacterial growth, S21.1 central air systems industrial and commercial, S21.6, 7 residential, S21.5 commercial, S21.6 controls, S21.7 energy considerations, S21.3 equipment, S21.4 evaporative cooling, S21.7 furnaces, S32.2 industrial, S21.6 Legionella pneumophila control, A48.7 load calculations, S21.3 nonducted, S21.5 portable, S21.5 residential, A1.5; S9.1; S21.5 scaling, S21.4 supply water, S21.4 terminal, S4.17 Humidity building envelope affected by, S21.2 control, A46.13; F32.1; S21.1; S23.1 disease prevention and treatment, S21.1 human comfort conditions, S21.1 measurement, F36.10 odors affected by, F12.2 sound transmission affected by, S21.2 static electricity affected by, S21.2 Hydrogen, liquid, R38.2 Hydronic systems, S35. (See also Water systems) capacity control, A46.20 central multifamily, A1.5 combined heat and power (CHP), S7.43 heating and cooling design, S12.1 heat transfer versus flow, A37.6, 7 pipe sizing, F22.6 residential, A1.3 snow melting, A50.10 testing, adjusting, balancing, A37.6, 8 units baseboard, S35.1, 3, 5 convectors, S35.1, 2, 5 finned-tube, S35.1, 3, 5 heaters, S27.4 makeup air, S27.9 pipe coils, S35.1 radiant panels, S6.11; S35.6 ceiling, S6.13 design, S6.11 floor, S6.15 wall, S6.15 radiators, S35.1, 2, 5 ventilators, S27.1 water treatment, A48.10 Hygrometers, F7.9, F36.10, 11 Hygrothermal loads, F25.2 Hygrothermal modeling, F25.13; F27.11 criteria, F25.14 dew-point method, F25.13 transient analysis, F25.13; F27.11 IAQ. See Indoor air quality (IAQ) Ice commercial, R34.6 delivery systems, R34.5 manufacture, R34.1 storage, R34.4 thermal storage, A34.7; R34.3; S50.7 Ice makers commercial, R47.6 heat pumps, R34.6 household refrigerator, R48.3 large commercial, R34.1 storage, R34.4 thermal storage, R34.3 types, R34.1 water treatment, A48.7, 9 Ice rinks, A4.5; R35 conditions, R35.4 dehumidifiers, S24.6 energy conservation, R35.5 floor design, R35.7 heat loads, R35.2 pebbling, R35.10 refrigeration, R35.5 surface building and maintenance, R35.9 water quality, R35.10 ID50‚ mean infectious dose, A58.4 Ignition temperatures of fuels, F28.2 IGUs. See Insulating glazing units (IGUs) Indoor air quality (IAQ). (See also Air quality) bioaerosols health effects, F10.7 particles, F10.4 sources, F10.7 environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), F10.6 gaseous contaminant control, A45.1 hospitals, A7.2 hotels and motels, A5.6 humidity, F25.14 kitchens, A31.13 modeling, F13.1 particulate matter, F10.4 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), F10.5 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), F10.5 radon action levels, F10.17 sensors, F7.10 standards, F10.10 synthetic vitreous fibers, F10.5 volatile organic compounds (VOC), F10.9 Indoor environmental modeling, F13 computational fluid dynamic (CFD), F13.1 contaminant transport, F13.16 multizone network, F13.14 verification and validation, F13.17 Induction air-and-water systems, A37.5 systems, S5.8 units under varying load, S5.10 Industrial applications burners gas, S30.6 oil, S30.12 gas drying, S23.11 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications I.22 heat pumps, S8.8 humidifiers, S21.6 process drying, S23.11 process refrigeration, R37.1 thermal storage, A34.17; S50.17 service water heating, A49.23 steam generators, A25.4 Industrial environments, A12; A29; A30 air conditioning, A12 cooling load, A12.5 design, A12.5 evaporative systems, A12.7 maintenance, A12.8 refrigerant systems, A12.7 spot cooling, A29.3, A51.12 ventilation, A29.1 air distribution, A29.2 air filtration systems, A12.7; S28.2; S29.1 contaminant control, A12.5, 8 energy conservation, A29.6 energy recovery, A29.6 evaporative cooling, A51.12 heat control, A29.4 heat exposure control, A29.5 heating systems, A12.6 heat stress, A29.4 local exhaust systems, A29.5; A30.1 air cleaners, A30.7 airflow near hood, A30.3 air-moving devices, A30.7 ducts, A30.5; S29.28 energy recovery, A30.7 exhaust stacks, A30.7 fans, A30.7 hoods, A30.2 operation and maintenance, A30.8 system testing, A30.8 process and product requirements, A12.1 spot cooling, A29.3, 5 thermal control, A12.4 ventilation systems, A29.1 Industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S29. (See also Air cleaners) auxiliary equipment, S29.28 equipment selection, S29.1 gaseous contaminant control, S29.17 absorption, S29.17 adsorption, S29.24, 26 incineration, S29.27 spray dry scrubbing, S29.18 wet-packed scrubbers, S29.18, 24 gas stream, S29.2 monitoring, S29.1 operation and maintenance, S29.29 particulate contaminant control, S29 collector performance, S29.3 electrostatic precipitators, S29.8 fabric filters, S29.10 inertial collectors, S29.4 scrubbers (wet collectors), S29.15 settling chambers, S29.3 regulations, S29.1 safety, S29.29 scrubbers (wet collectors), S29.15 Industrial hygiene, F10.3 Infiltration. (See also Air leakage) air exchange, R13.4 rate, F16.3, 12 F = 2009 Fundamentals 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals air leakage air-vapor retarder, F16.17 building data, F16.15 controlling, F16.17 calculation, residential, F16.22 climatic zones, F16.19 commercial buildings, F16.25 direct flow through doorways, R13.6 driving mechanisms, F16.12 examples, F16.23 fenestration, F15.50 indoor air quality (IAQ), F16.10 infiltration degree-days, F16.12 latent heat load, F16.11 leakage function, F16.14 measurement, F36.22 refrigerated facilities, R13.4 residential buildings, F16.14 sensible heat load, F16.11 terminology, F16.1 thermal loads, F16.11 ventilation, R46.4 Infrared applications comfort, F9.23, 24 drying, A28.3 energy generators, S15.1 greenhouse heating, A22.12 heaters, A53.1, 4, 8; S15.1 electric, S15.2 gas-fired, S15.1; S30.6 industrial environments, A12.7 oil-fired, S15.3 system efficiency, S15.3 snow-melting systems, A50.16 In-room terminal systems changeover temperature, S5.11 performance under varying load, S5.10 primary air, S5.10 refrigeration load, S5.11 Instruments, F14. (See also specific instruments or applications) Insulating glazing units (IGUs), F15.1 Insulation, electrical, R5.8 motor, breakdown of, S44.11 Insulation, thermal airflow retarders, F25.8 animal environments, A22.4 below-ambient system, R33.2 ceilings, A43.5 clothing, F9.8 compressive resistance, F23.7 condensation control, F23.3 corrosion under, F23.6 cryogenic, R38.23 ducts, F23.12; S18.6 flexible, F23.10 process, F23.12 economic thickness, in mechanical systems; F23.1 energy conservation, F23.1 fire resistance ratings, F23.6 fire safety, F23.5 flame spread index, F23.5 foundations, A43.2 freeze protection, F23.3 green buildings, F23.1 heat gain, F23.15 heat loss, F23.15 heat transfer, F36.31 hospitals, A7.13 insertion loss, F23.5 limited combustible, F23.6 materials; F23.7, F26.2 cellular, F23.7 fibrous, F23.7 foil, scrim, and kraft paper (FSK), F23.10 foil-reinforced kraft (FRK), F23.11 granular, F23.7 reflective, F23.7 moisture control, F26.1 noise control; F23.4 noncombustible, F23.6 operating temperature, F23.7 performance, F26.4 personnel protection, F23.2 pipes, F23.10 economic thickness, S11.17 hangers, F23.10 underground, F23.12; S11.8 properties, F25.1 refrigerant piping, R33.1 design, R33.1 installation, R33.7 jacketing, R33.7 joint sealant, R33.4 maintenance, R33.9 vapor retarders, R33.4 refrigerated facilities, R13.1; R14.12 roofs, A43.5 smoke developed index, F23.5 solar energy systems, S36.4, 12 tanks, vessels, and equipment, F23.12 thermal conductivity, F23.7 thermal storage systems, water, A34.6; S50.6 walls, A43.4 water absorption, F23.7 water vapor permeability, F23.7 water vapor permeance, F23.7 water vapor retarders; F23.9 weather barriers, F23.8 weather protection, F23.8 Integrated building design (IBD), A57.1 budgeting, A57.5 commissioning, A57.8 communication, A57.5 construction contract administration, A57.7 document phase, A57.8 post-construction activities, A57.8 design basis, A57.6 criteria, A57.6 development, A57.8 intent, A57.8 team, A57.5, A57.7 design-phase contract, A57.1 documentation, A57.7 drawings, A57.7 energy modeling, A57.4 objectives, A57.1 organization, A57.4 programming, A57.4 project closeout, A57.8 delivery, A57.8 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications Composite Index design, A57.6 manual, A57.7 predesign, A57.8 quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), A57.5 schematic design, A57.1 specifications, A57.7 training, A57.5 Integrated design process (IDP), A57.1 Intercoolers, ammonia refrigeration systems, R3.3 Jail cells, A8.5 Jails, A8.3 Joule-Thomson cycle, R38.6 Judges’ chambers, A8.4 Juice, R25.1 Jury facilities, A8.4 Justice facilities, A8 control rooms, A8.3, 4 controls, A8.3 courthouses, A8.4 courtrooms, A8.4, 4 dining halls, A8.4 energy considerations, A8.2 fire/smoke management, A8.3 fitness, A8.5 forensic labs, A8.1, 5 guard stations, A8.3, 4 health issues, A8.3 heating and cooling plants, A8.2 jail cells, A8.5 jails, A8.3 judges’ chambers, A8.4 jury rooms, A8.4 juvenile, A8.1 kitchens, A8.4 laundries, A8.4 libraries, A8.3, 5 police stations, A8.1 prisons, A8.3 system requirements, A8.1 terminology, A8.1 types, A8.1 U.S. Marshals, A8.5 Juvenile facilities, A8.1. (See also Family courts) K-12 schools, A6.3 Kelvin’s equation, F25.9 Kirchoff’s law, F4.12 Kitchens, A31 air balancing, A31.18 multiple-hood systems, A31.20 air conditioning, A3.5, 6 air filtration, A31.3, 9 controls, A31.27 cooking effluent control of, A31.9 generation of, A31.1 plume, A31.1 thermal plume behavior, A31.2 dishwashers, piping, A49.7 energy conservation economizers, A31.21 reduced airflow, A31.22 residential hoods, A31.28 restaurants, A31.21 exhaust hoods, A31 ductless, A31.9 F = 2009 Fundamentals I.23 recirculating systems, A31.9, 13 residential, A31.27 systems, A31.2 type I, A31.3 type II, A31.3, 8 exhaust systems, A31.2, 9, 28 ducts, A31.12; S18.5 effluent control, A31.9 fans, A31.12 fire safety, A31.9 hoods, A31.2 maintenance, A31.26 multiple-hood systems, A31.20, 24 residential, A31.28 terminations, A31.13 fire safety, A31.22, 24 fire suppression, A31.22 multiple-hood systems, A31.24 prevention of fire spread, A31.24 protection, A31.22 residential, A31.28 grease removal, A31.3, 9 heat recovery, A31.21 indoor air quality (IAQ), A31.13 integration and balancing, A31.18 in justice facilities, A8.4 maintenance, A31.26 makeup air systems air distribution, A31.15 maintenance, A31.26 replacement, A31.13 residential, A31.28 operation, A31.25 residential, A31.27 service water heating, A49.7 ventilation, A31 Kleemenko cycle, R38.13 Krypton, recovery, R38.17 Kyoto protocol, F35.4 Laboratories, A14 air distribution, A14.9 air filtration, A14.9 air intakes, A14.13 animal labs, A14.14 cage environment, A22.9 ventilation performance, A22.9 biological safety cabinets, A14.6 biosafety levels, A14.17 clean benches, A14.8 cleanrooms, A16.1 clinical labs, A14.18 commissioning, A14.19 compressed gas storage, A14.8 containment labs, A14.16 controls, A14.12 design parameters, A14.2 duct leakage rates, A14.10 economics, A14.19 exhaust devices, A14.8 exhaust systems, A14.10 fire safety, A14.11 fume hoods, A14.3 controls, A14.13 performance, A14.4 hazard assessment, A14.2 heat recovery, A14.19 hospitals, A7.9 loads, A14.2 nuclear facilities, A26.9 paper testing labs, A24.3 radiochemistry labs, A14.18 safety, A14.2, 11 scale-up labs, A14.17 stack heights, A14.13 supply air systems, A14.9 system maintenance, A14.18 system operation, A14.18 teaching labs, A14.18 types, A14.1 ventilation, A14.8 Laboratory information management systems (LIMS), A8.7 Lakes, heat transfer, A32.27 Laminar flow air, A16.3 fluids, F3.3 Large eddy simulation (LES), turbulence modeling, F13.3; F24.10 Laser Doppler anemometers (LDA), F36.17 Laser Doppler velocimeters (LDV), F36.17 Latent energy change materials, A34.2; S50.2 Laundries evaporative cooling, A51.13 service water heating, A49.21 in justice facilities, A8.4 LCCP. See Life-cycle climate performance (LCCP) LCR. See Load collector ratio (LCR) LD50‚ mean lethal dose, A58.4 LDA. See Laser Doppler anemometers (LDA) LDV. See Laser Doppler velocimeters (LDV) LE. See Life expectancy (LE) rating Leakage, ducts; S18.2 Leakage function, relationship, F16.14 Leak detection of refrigerants, F29.8; R8.2 methods, R45.4 Legionella pneumophila, A48.6, F10.6 air washers, S40.9 control, A48.7 cooling towers, S39.12, 13 decorative fountains, A48.7 evaporative coolers, S40.9 hospitals, A7.2 Legionnaires’ disease, A48.6 service water systems, A49.9 Legionnaires’ disease. See Legionella pneumophila LES. See Large eddy simulation (LES) Lewis relation, F6.9; F9.4 Libraries. See Museums, galleries, archives, and libraries Life-cycle climate performance (LCCP), R5.1 Life expectancy (LE) rating, film, A20.3 Lighting cooling load, F18.3 greenhouses, A22.14 heat gain, F18.3 plant environments, A22.17 sensors, F7.10 Light measurement, F36.29 LIMS. See Laboratory information management systems (LIMS) Linde cycle, R38.6 Line sizing for halocarbon systems, R2.2 Liquefied natural gas (LNG), S17.4 vaporization systems, S17.4 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications I.24 Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), F28.5 Liquid overfeed (recirculation) systems, R1 ammonia refrigeration systems, R3.21 circulating rate, R1.3 evaporators, R1.5 line sizing, R1.6 liquid separators, R1.7 overfeed rate, R1.3 pump selection, R1.4 receiver sizing, R1.7 recirculation, R1.1 refrigerant distribution, R1.2 terminology, R1.1 Lithium bromide/water, F30.1, 69 Lithium chloride, S23.2 Load calculations cargo containers, R30.8 coils, air-cooling and dehumidifying, S22.14 computer calculation, A39.5 humidification, S21.3 hydronic systems, S12.2 for in-room systems, S5.2 nonresidential, F18.1, 18 precooling fruits and vegetables, R15.1 refrigerated facilities air exchange, R13.4 direct flow through doorways, R13.6 equipment, R13.6 infiltration, R13.4 internal heat load, R13.3 product, R13.3 transmission, R13.1 residential cooling residential heat balance (RHB) method, F17.2 residential load factor (RLF) method, F17.2 residential heating crawlspace, F17.11 procedure, F17.11 snow-melting systems, A50.1 Load collector ratio (LCR), A33.21 Local exhaust. See Exhaust Loss coefficients control valves, F3.9 duct fitting database, F21.9 fittings, F3.8 flexible ducts, F21.9 Louvers, F15.29 Low-temperature water (LTW) system, S12.1 LPG. See Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) LTW. See Low-temperature water (LTW) system Lubricants, R7. (See also Lubrication; Oil) additives, R7.4 ammonia refrigeration, R3.6 component characteristics, R7.3 effects, R7.27 evaporator return, R7.18 foaming, R7.26 halocarbon refrigeration compressor floodback protection, R2.31 liquid indicators, R2.32 lubricant management, R2.10 moisture indicators, R2.31 purge units, R2.32 receivers, R2.32 refrigerant driers, R2.31 F = 2009 Fundamentals 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals separators, R2.30 strainers, R2.31 surge drums or accumulators, R2.30 mineral oil aromatics, R7.3 naphthenes (cycloparaffins), R7.2 nonhydrocarbons, R7.3 paraffins, R7.2 miscibility, R7.13 moisture content, R45.1 oxidation, R7.26 properties, R7.4 floc point, R7.20 viscosity, R7.5 refrigerant contamination, R6.7 reactions with, R5.5 solutions, R7.8 density, R7.8 solubility, R7.9, 11, 13 viscosity, R7.13 requirements, R7.2 separators, R44.23 solubility air, R7.26 hydrocarbon gages, R7.21 refrigerant solutions, R7.9, 11, 13 water, R7.26 stability, R7.27 synthetic lubricants, R7.3 testing, R7.1 wax separation, R7.20 Lubrication combustion turbines, S7.22 compressors centrifugal, S37.36 reciprocating, S37.10 rotary, S37.13 single-screw, S37.15 twin-screw, S37.22 engines, S7.12 Mach number, S37.32 Maintenance. (See also Operation and maintenance) absorption units, R41.7 air cleaners, S28.8 air conditioners, retail store, A2.1 air washers, S40.8 chillers, S42.5, 12 coils air-cooling and dehumidifying, S22.15 air-heating, S26.5 combined heat and power (CHP) systems, S7.17 condensers, S38 air-cooled, S38.12 evaporative, S38.18 water-cooled, S38.7 cooking equipment, A31.26 coolers, liquid, S41.6 cooling towers, S39.11 costs, A36.6 documentation, A38.3 energy recovery equipment, S25.7, 11 evaporative coolers, S40.8 filters, air, S28.8 gaseous air cleaners, A45.14 heat pumps, unitary, S48.2 industrial air-conditioning systems, A12.8 infrared heaters, S15.5 kitchen ventilation systems, A31.25, 28 laboratory HVAC equipment, A14.18 liquid chillers, S42.15 makeup air units, S27.10 management, A38 manual, A38.3 solar energy systems, A33.24 terminology, A38.1 turbines combustion, S7.22 steam, S7.31 unit heaters, S27.8 Makeup air units, S27.8 applications, S27.8 codes, S27.9 commissioning, S27.9 controls, A46.18; S27.9 design, S27.8 maintenance, S27.10 selection, S27.8 standards, S27.9 types, S27.9 Malls, A2.6 Manometers, differential pressure readout, A37.12 Manufactured homes, A1.6 airflow modeling example, F13.18 Masonry, insulation, F26.7 (See also Building envelopes) F26.7 Mass transfer, F6 convection, F6.5 eddy diffusion, F6.9 Lewis relation, F6.9; F9.4 energy recovery, air-to-air, S25.5, 7 heat transfer simultaneous with, F6.9 air washers, F6.11 cooling coils, F6.12 cooling towers, F6.12 dehumidifying coils, F6.12 direct-contact equipment, F6.10 enthalpy potential, F6.9 molecular diffusion, F6.1 in liquids and solids, F6.4 two-film theory, S29.21 simultaneous, F6.9 Mass-transit systems buses, A9.12, 13 bus garages, A13.20 bus terminals, A13.22 diesel locomotive facilities, A13.25 enclosed vehicular facilities, A13.1 environmental control, A9.1 fixed-guideway vehicles, A9.12 rail cars, A9.12, 16 rapid transit, A9.16; A13.10 stations, A13.13 thermal comfort, A9.12; A13.13 thermal load analysis, A9.13; A13.14 tunnels railroad, A13.14 rapid transit, A13.10 subway, A13.10 ventilation, A9.12; A13.4 McLeod gages, F36.13 Mean infectious dose (ID50), A58.4 Mean lethal dose (LD50), A58.4 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications Composite Index Mean radiant temperature (MRT), A53.1 Mean temperature difference, F4.21 Measurement, F36. (See also Instruments) air exchange rates, F16.12 airflow, A37.2 air infiltration, F36.22 air leakage, F16.15 airtightness, F36.22 carbon dioxide, F36.23 combustion analysis, F36.32 contaminants, F36.32 data acquisition, F36.32 electricity, F36.25 fluid flow, A37.11; F3.10; F36.19 gaseous contaminants, A45.4 heat transfer in insulation, F36.31 humidity, F36.10 light levels, F36.29 moisture content, F36.30; R6.3 refrigeration systems, R45.3 moisture transfer, F36.30 odors, F12.5 pressure, F36.13 rotative speed, F36.25 sound, F36.27 temperature, F36.4 thermal comfort, F36.29 uncertainty analysis, A40.12; F36.3 velocity, F36.15 vibration, F36.27 Meat, R17 display refrigerators, R46.7 food processing, R17.1 frozen, R17.16 packaged fresh cuts, R17.11 processing facilities boxed beef, R17.7 carcass coolers beef, R17.2 calves, R17.10 hogs, R17.8 lamb, R17.10 energy conservation, R17.17 pork trimmings, R17.10 processed meats bacon slicing rooms, R17.13 freezing, R17.15 lard chilling, R17.14 sausage dry rooms, R17.13 smokehouses, R17.12 sanitation, R17.1 shipping docks, R17.17 variety meats, R17.10 retail storage, R46.12 thermal properties, R9.1 Mechanical traps, steam systems, S10.8 Medium-temperature water (MTW) system, S12.1 Meshes, for computational fluid dynamics, F13.4 refining, F13.11 Metabolic rate, F9.6 Metals and alloys, low-temperature, R39.6 Microbial growth, R12.4 Microbiology of foods, R12.1 Mines, A27 heat sources, A27.2 mechanical refrigeration plants, A27.9 spot coolers, A27.10 F = 2009 Fundamentals I.25 ventilation, A27.1 wall rock heat flow, A27.2 Modeling. (See also Data-driven modeling; Energy, modeling) airflow, A16.4 around buildings, F24.9 in buildings, F13.1 contaminant transport, F13.16 multizone, F13.1, 14 pollutant transport, F13.1, 18 turbulence, F13.3 wind tunnels, F24.10 boilers, F19.14 compressor, F19.15 condenser and evaporator, F19.15 controls, F19.23 cooling tower, F19.16 moisture in buildings, F25.13 scale simulation and testing, A44.10 small forced-air heating systems, S9.12 systems, F19.17 thermal (hot-box method), F25.7 validation, F19.31 Moist air psychrometrics, F1.1 thermal conductivity, F1.19 thermodynamic properties standard pressure, F1.14 temperature scale, F1.2 transport properties, F1.19 viscosity, F1.19 Moisture in building materials, F25.8 in buildings animal facilities, A22.2 capacity, F25.2 in ceilings, A43.6 combustion, F28.12 condensation, S21.2 content, F25.2 control, F25; F26; F27 terminology, F25.1 diffusivity, F36.31 and energy efficiency, F25.15 farm crops content, A23.1 flow with air- and heat flow, F25.12 isothermal, F25.12 mechanisms, F25.10 modeling, F25.13 flux, F25.2 in foundations, A43.2 hygrothermal modeling, F25.13 in insulation, F26.1 for refrigeration piping, R33 measurement, F36.30 paint, effects on, F25.14 permeability, F36.30 permeance, F36.30 problems, in buildings, F25.8 ratio, F25.2 in refrigerant systems control, R6.1 desiccants, R6.3 driers, R6.6 drying methods, R6.2 effects, R6.1 factory dehydration, R45.1 hydrocarbon gages solubility, R7.21 indicators, R6.3 lubricant solubility, R7.26 measurement, R6.3; R45.3 solubility, R6.1 sources, R6.1; R45.1 in roofs, A43.6 solar vapor drive, F25.3 sorption isotherms, F36.30 storage in building materials, F26.15 transfer, F25.2 examples, F27.8 transient, F25.12 transmission data, F26 in walls, A43.4 water vapor retarders, F16.17; F26.15 in windows, A43.7 Mold, F25.14 Montreal Protocol, F29.1 Motors, S44 air volume control, S44.8 codes, S44.2 compressors, S37.6 controls, S44.6 current imbalance, S44.2 efficiency, S44.2 evaporative cooling, A51.12 field assembly and refrigerant contamination, R6.8 furnaces, residential, S32.2 general purpose, S44.4 harmonics, S44.12 hermetic, S44.4 burnout, R6.8 impedance, S44.10 induction, S44.4 integral thermal protection, S44.5 inverter duty, S44.10 noise, S44.11 power factor correction capacitors, S44.13 power supply (ac), S44.1 protection, S44.5 pumps, centrifugal, S43.7, 11, 13 service factor, S44.4 standards, S44.2 starting, and electricity, S44.7 switching times, S44.10 torque, S44.4 in variable-speed drives, S44.10 voltage imbalance, S44.1 Movie theaters, A4.3 MRT. See Mean radiant temperature (MRT) Multifamily residences, A1.5 Multiple-use complexes air conditioning, A5.8 design criteria, A5.1 load characteristics, A5.1 systems, A5.1, 2 energy inefficient, A5.2 total energy, A5.2 Multisplit, S48.1 Multizone airflow modeling, F13.14 applications example, F13.18 approaches, F13.16 verification and validation, F13.17 Museums, galleries, archives, and libraries air distribution, A21.18 air filtration, A21.18 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications I.26 artifact deterioration, A21.4 building construction, A21.12 dehumidification, A21.17, 19 exhibit cases, A21.5 humidification, A21.17 mold growth, A21.4 outside air, A21.17 relative humidity, effect on artifacts, A21.4 system selection, A21.14 temperature, effect on artifacts, A21.3 Naphthenes, R7.2 Natatoriums. (See also Swimming pools) air conditioning, A4.6 dehumidifiers, S24.4 duct design, A4.7 envelope design, A4.7 load estimation, A4.6 pool water chemistry, A4.7 ventilation requirements, A4.6 Natural gas, F28.5 liquefaction, R38.8 liquefied, R38.3 pipe sizing, F22.20 processing, R38.18 separation, R38.18 Navier-Stokes equations, F13.1 Reynolds-averaged, F13.3 NC curves. See Noise criterion (NC) curves Net positive suction, S43.9 Net positive suction head (NPSH), A32.6, 24; A34.6; R3.3 Nightclubs, A3.6 Night setback furnaces, residential, S9.15, 16 recovery, A41.27 Nitrogen liquid, R38.3 recovery, R38.17 refrigerant, F29.2; F30.60; F33.1 Noise, F8.13. (See also Sound) air conditioners, room, S49.4 combustion, F28.17 compressors centrifugal, S37.5, 23, 34 scroll, S37.26 single-screw, S37.18 condensing units, R46.18 control, with insulation, F23.4 controls, A16.15 engine test facilities, A15.4 fans, S20.8 fluid flow, F3.13 health effects, F10.16 valves, S46.2 water pipes, F22.5 Noise criterion (NC) curves, A47.31; F8.16 balanced (NCB), A47.32 Noncondensable gases condensers, water-cooled, S38.6 refrigerant contamination, R6.7 Nonhydrocarbons, R7.2 NPSH. See Net positive suction head (NPSH) NTU. See Number of transfer units (NTU) Nuclear facilities, A26 air filtration, A26.3, 7 basic technology, A26.1 F = 2009 Fundamentals 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals codes, A26.10 criticality, A26.1 decommissioning, A26.10 Department of Energy facilities requirements confinement systems, A26.4 ventilation, A26.4 fire protection, A26.2 HVAC design considerations, A26.1 Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements boiling water reactors, A26.7 laboratories, A26.9 medical and research reactors, A26.9 other buildings and rooms, A26.8 power plants, A26.5 pressurized water reactors, A26.7 radioactive waste facilities, A26.10 safety design, A26.1 standards, A26.10 tornado and wind protection, A26.2 Number of transfer units (NTU) cooling towers, S39.16 heat transfer, F4.22 Nursing facilities, A7.14 service water heating, A49.13 Nuts, storage, R29.7 Odors, F12 analytical measurement, F12.5 control of, in industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S29.26, 27 factors affecting, F12.2, 5 odor units, F12.5 olf unit, F12.6 sense of smell, F12.1 sensory measurement, F12.2 acceptability, F12.5 sources, F12.1 suprathreshold intensity, F12.3 threshold, F12.1 ODP. See Ozone depletion potential (ODP) Office buildings air conditioning, A3.6 space requirements, A3.7 service water heating, A49.13, 16 Oil, fuel, F28.6 characteristics, F28.6 distillate oils, F28.6 handling, S30.15 heating value, F28.7 pipe sizing, F22.21 preparation, S30.16 residual oils, F28.6 storage buildings, A25.9 storage tanks, S30.14 sulfur content, F28.7 viscosity, F28.6 Oil. (See also Lubricants) in refrigerant systems, R7.2 in two-phase flow, F5.11 Olf unit, F12.6 One-pipe systems chilled-water, S12.19 steam convection heating, S10.11; 1993 Fundamentals, Chapter 33, pp. 18-19 (See explanation on first page of index.) Operating costs, A36.4 Operation and maintenance, A38. (See also Maintenance) compressors, S37.36 condition monitoring, A38.5 desiccant dehumidifiers, S23.7 documentation, A38.3 industrial exhaust systems, A30.8 exhaust gas cleaning equipment, S29.29 laboratory HVAC equipment, A14.18 management condition monitoring, A38.5 results-oriented maintenance, A38.2 system complexity, A38.4 manuals, A38.3 new technology, A38.7 responsibilities, A38.6 Outlets, air diffusion, performance, F20.10 Outpatient health care facilities, A7.13 Outside air, free cooling cooling towers, S39.9 liquid chillers, S42.12 Owning costs, A36.1 Oxygen in aircraft cabins, A10.9 liquid, R38.3 recovery, R38.17 Ozone activated carbon air cleaner, A45.12 in aircraft cabins catalytic converters, A10.7, 8 limits, A10.1 electronic air filters, S28.8 health effects, F10.11 Ozone depletion potential (ODP), R5.1 PAC. See Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) Packaged terminal air conditioners (PTACs), S49.5 residential, A1.6 Packaged terminal heat pumps (PTHPs), S49.5 residential, A1.6 PAH. See Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) Paint, and moisture problems, F25.14 Panel heating and cooling, S6. (See also Radiant heating and cooling) advantages, S6.1 air-heated/cooled panels, S6.19 capillary tube mats, S6.7 control, S6.19 cooling, S6.1 design, S6.6 calculations, S6.8 disadvantages, S6.2 electric heating systems, S6.16 ceiling, S6.16 floor, S6.18 wall, S6.18 heat flux combined, S6.5 natural convection, S6.3 thermal radiation, S6.2 heating, S6.1 hybrid HVAC, S6.1 hydronic systems, S6.11 ceiling, S6.13 design considerations, S6.11 distribution and layout, S6.14 floor, S6.15 wall, S6.15 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications Composite Index Paper moisture content, A18.2 photographic, A20.1 storage, A20.3 Paper products facilities, A24 air conditioning, A24.2 conduction drying, A28.3 control rooms, A24.3 evaporative cooling, A51.13 finishing area, A24.3 machine area, A24.2 system selection, A24.4 testing laboratories, A24.3 Paraffins, R7.2 Parallel compressor systems, R46.14 Particulate matter, indoor air quality (IAQ), F10.4, 5 Pasteurization, R20.2 beverages, R26.6 dairy products, R20.2 eggs, R21.4, 10 juices, R25.4, 7 Peanuts, drying, A23.8 PEL. See Permissible exposure limits (PEL) Performance contracting, A40.2 Permafrost stabilization, R36.4 Permeability clothing, F9.8 vapor, F36.30 water vapor, F25.2 Permeance air, F25.2 thickness, F36.30 water vapor, F25.2 Permissible exposure limits (PEL), F10.5 Pharmaceutical manufacturing cleanrooms, A16.5 Phase-change materials, thermal storage of, A34.11, 21; S50.11, 21 Photographic materials, A20 processing and printing requirements, A20.1 storage, A20.1, 3 unprocessed materials, A20.1 Photovoltaic (PV) systems, S36.18 (See also Solar energy) Physical properties of materials, F33 boiling points, F33.1, 2 density liquids, F33.2 solids, F33.3 vapors, F33.1 emissivity of solids, F33.3 freezing points, F33.2 heat of fusion, F33.2 heat of vaporization, F33.2 solids, F33.3 specific heat liquids, F33.2 solids, F33.3 vapors, F33.1, 2 thermal conductivity solids, F33.3 vapors, F33.1 viscosity liquids, F33.2 vapors, F33.1 Physiological principles, humans. (See also Comfort) F = 2009 Fundamentals I.27 adaptation, F9.16 age, F9.16 body surface area (DuBois), F9.3 clothing, F9.8 cooling load, F18.3 DuBois equation, F9.3 energy balance, F9.2 heat stress, F9.21, 24 heat transfer coefficients convective, F9.7 evaporative, F9.8 Lewis relation, F9.4 radiative, F9.7 hypothalamus, F9.1 hypothermia, F9.1 latent heat loss, F9.3, 10 mechanical efficiency, F9.6 metabolic rate, F9.6 respiratory heat loss, F9.4 seasonal rhythms, F9.16 sensible heat loss, F9.3 sex, F9.16 skin heat loss, F9.3, 5 skin wettedness, F9.21 thermal exchanges, F9.2 thermoregulation, F9.1 vasodilation, F9.1 Pigs. See Swine Pipes, S45. (See also Piping) buried, heat transfer analysis, S11.11 codes, S45.6 cold springing, S11.18; S45.12 computer analysis, A39.7 copper tube, S45.1 expansion, S11.18 expansion bends, S45.11 expansion joints, S45.12 expansion loops, S45.10, 11 fluid flow, F3.1 heat transfer analysis, S11.9 insulation, F23.10 hangers, F23.10 installation, F23.10 underground, F23.12 iron, S45.2 joining methods, S45.2 plastic, F22.11; S45.7, 8 selection, S45.6 sizing, F22 ammonia systems capacity tables, R3.8, 9 fittings, F22.1, 8 fuel oil, F22.21 gas, F22.20 hydronic systems, F22.6; S12.23 air separation, F22.6 insulation and vapor retarders, R3.10 isolated line sections, R3.10 pressure drop equations, F22.1 refrigerant halocarbon systems, R2.2 retail food store refrigeration, R46.13 service water, F22.8 cold water sizing procedure, F22.11 steam, F22.12 condensate return, F22.13 high-pressure, F22.13 low-pressure, F22.13 two-pipe systems, F22.13 valves, F22.1, 8; R3.8 water fixture units, F22.9 flow rate limitations, F22.5 aging allowances, F22.5 erosion, F22.5 noise, F22.5 water hammer, F22.6 standards, fittings, S45.2 steel, S45.1 stress calculations, S45.7 supporting elements, S11.18; S45.8 Piping. (See also Pipes) boilers, S10.3 capacity tables, R2.10-15 codes, S45.6 cooling towers, S13.2; S39.8 district heating and cooling distribution system, S11.6 heat transfer, S11.9 insulation thickness, S11.17 geothermal energy systems, A32.7 heat-carrying capacity, S12.3 hydronic snow melting, A50.11 insulation, R33.1 radiant panels, hydronic, S6.14 refrigerant ammonia systems, R3.1 below-ambient, R33.1 carbon dioxide systems, R3.26 halocarbon systems, R2.1 insulation, R33.1 jacketing, R33.7 pipe preparation, R33.2 supports and hangers, R33.8 vapor retarders, R33.4 service hot water, A49.4 solar energy, A33.12; S36.3 sound control, A47.44 transmission, A37.24 standards, S11.19; S45.6 system identification, F37.10 systems ammonia refrigeration, R3.7 compressor piping, R3.10, 12 condenser and receiver piping, R3.14 evaporator piping, R3.18 carbon dioxide refrigeration, R3.26 halocarbon refrigeration capacity tables, R2.3-9, 11-15 compressor, R2.24 defrost gas supply lines, R2.21 discharge lines, R2.19 double hot-gas risers, R2.19 draining prevention, R2.19 evaporator, R2.28 gas velocity, R2.1 hot-gas (discharge) mufflers, R2.20 bypass, R2.34 insulation, R2.5 liquid cooler, flooded, R2.25, 26 location and arrangement, R2.5 minimum gas velocities, R2.19 oil transport up risers, R2.19 pressure drop, R2.2 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications I.28 refrigerant feed devices, R2.26 single riser and oil separator, R2.19 vibration and noise, R2.5 solar energy, A33.12; S36.5, 7 steam, S10.3, 5 water, S14.7 circuits, S12.11 distribution, S12.6 unit heaters, S27.7 vibration control, A47.44 vibration transmission, A37.24 Pitot tube, A37.2; F36.17 Places of assembly, A4 air conditioning, A4.2 air distribution, A4.2 air filtration, A4.1 air stratification, A4.2 arenas, A4.4 atriums, A4.8 auditoriums, A4.3 concert halls, A4.4 convention centers, A4.5 exhibition centers, A4.5 fairs, A4.8 gymnasiums, A4.5 houses of worship, A4.3 lighting loads, A4.1 mechanical equipment rooms, A4.3 movie theaters, A4.3 natatoriums, A4.6 playhouses, A4.3 precooling, A4.2 sound control, A4.1 space conditions, A4.1 stadiums, A4.4 temporary exhibit buildings, A4.8 vibration control, A4.1 Planes. See Aircraft Plank’s equation, R10.7 Plant environments, A22.10 controlled-environment rooms, A22.16 design, A22.10 greenhouses, A22.10 carbon dioxide enrichment, A22.14 cooling, A22.12 energy conservation, A22.15 evaporative cooling, A22.13 heating, A22.11 heat loss calculation, A22.11 humidity control, A22.14 photoperiod control, A22.14 shading, A22.13 site selection, A22.10 supplemental irradiance, A22.14 ventilation, A22.12 other facilities, A22.21 photoperiod control, A22.14 phytotrons, A22.18 plant growth chambers, A22.16 supplemental irradiance, A22.14 Plate heat exchangers (PHEs), S11.28 Plenums construction, S18.4 mixing, S4.7 sound attenuation, A47.12 stratification in, A37.2 PMV. See Predicted mean vote (PMV) Police stations, A8.1 F = 2009 Fundamentals 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals Pollutant transport modeling. See Contaminants, indoor, concentration prediction Pollution, air, and combustion, F28.7, 14 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), F10.5 Polydimethylsiloxane, F31.13 Ponds, spray, S39.5 Pope cell, F36.12 Positive positioners, F7.8 Potatoes processed, R27.5 storage, A51.14 Poultry. (See also Animal environments; Chickens; Turkeys) chilling, R18.1 decontamination, R18.4 freezing, R18.5 packaging, R18.7 processing, R18.1, 4 processing plant sanitation, R18.9 recommended environment, A22.8 refrigeration, retail, R18.10 storage, R18.10 tenderness control, R18.9 thawing, R18.11 Power-law airflow model, F13.14 Power plants, A25 buildings oil pump, A25.9 oil storage, A25.9 steam generator, A25.4 turbine generator, A25.7 coal-handling facilities, A25.6, 9 combined heat and power (CHP), S7.1 combustion turbine areas, A25.8 control center, A25.9 cooling, A25.10 design criteria, A25.1 evaporative cooling, A51.13 fuel cells, S7.22 heating, A25.10 turbines combustion, S7.18 steam, S7.25 ventilation, A25.3 rates, A25.2 PPD. See Predicted percent dissatisfied (PPD) Prandtl number, F4.17 Precooling buildings, A41.28 flowers, cut, R15.11 fruits and vegetables, load calculation, R15.1 indirect evaporative, A51.3 places of assembly, A4.2 Predicted mean vote (PMV), F36.30 comfort, F9.17 Predicted percent dissatisfied (PPD), F9.17 Preschools, A6.1 Pressure absolute, F36.13 aircraft cabins, A10.2, 4, 6, 8 clean spaces, A16.14 differential, F36.13 conversion to head, A37.12 hospitals, A7.3, 4 readout, A37.12 dynamic, F36.13 gage, F36.13 measurement, A37.2; F36.13 sensors, F7.9 smoke control, A52.5, 9 stairwells, A52.9, 10 static control, A46.8; F36.13 steam systems, S10.4 units, F36.13 vacuum, F36.13 Pressure drop. (See also Darcy-Weisbach equation) correlations, F5.11 pipe sizing, F22.1 in plate heat exchangers, F5.13 two-phase fluid flow, F5.11 Pressure losses, district heating and cooling, S11.7 Primary-air systems, S5.10 Printing plants, A18 air conditioning, A18.1 air filtration, A18.4 binding areas, A18.4 collotype printing rooms, A18.4 letterpress areas, A18.2 lithographic pressrooms, A18.3 paper moisture content control, A18.2 platemaking rooms, A18.2 relief printing areas, A18.2 rotogravure pressrooms, A18.4 salvage systems, A18.4 shipping areas, A18.4 ink drying, A28.3 Prisons, A8.3 Produce desiccation, R11.1 deterioration rate, R11.1 display refrigerators, R46.8 Propane commercial, F28.5 furnaces, residential, S32.10 Propylene glycol, hydronic systems, S12.23 Psychrometers, F1.13 Psychrometrics, F1 air handlers, S4.4 chart, F1.15 adiabatic mixing, F1.16 of water, F1.17 heat absorption and moisture gain, F1.18 moist air, cooling and heating, F1.16 thermodynamic properties, F1.14 evaporative cooling systems, A51.1, 11, 16, 17 humidity parameters, F1.2 industrial drying, A28.1 moist air standard atmosphere, U.S., F1.1 thermal conductivity, F1.19 thermodynamic properties, F1.2, 14 transport properties, F1.19 viscosity, F1.19 perfect gas equations, F1.12 water at saturation, thermodynamic properties, F1.2 PTACs. See Packaged terminal air conditioners (PTACs) PTHPs. See Packaged terminal heat pumps (PTHPs) R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications Composite Index Public buildings. See Commercial and public buildings; Places of assembly Pulldown load, R46.5 Pumps centrifugal, S43 affinity laws, S43.7 antifreeze effect on, S12.24 arrangement, S43.10 compound, S12.8 pumping distributed, S43.12 parallel, S12.7; S43.10 primary-secondary, S12.8; S43.11 series, S12.7; S43.11 variable-speed, S43.12 standby pump, S12.8; S43.11 two-speed motors, S43.11 casing, S43.2 cavitation, S43.8 commissioning, S43.13 construction, S43.1 efficiency, best efficiency point (BEP), S43.6 energy conservation, S43.13 impellers operation, S43.2 trimming, S43.5, 7, 8 installation, S43.13 mixing, S12.8 motors, S43.13 operation, S43.2, 13 performance net positive suction, S43.8 operating point, S43.5 pump curves, S12.6; S43.3, 5 power, S43.6 radial thrust, S43.8 selection, S43.9 types, S43.2 variable-speed, S12.8 chilled-water, A41.2, 6, 16, 17 sequencing, A41.16, 20 condenser water, A41.6 as fluid flow indicators, A37.13 geothermal wells, A32.25 lineshaft, A32.6 submersible, A32.6 hydronic snow melting, A50.13 liquid overfeed systems, R1.4 solar energy systems, A33.12 systems, water, S12.6; S14.6 variable-speed, A41.8, 17 Purge units, centrifugal chillers, S42.11 Radiant heating and cooling, A53; S6.1; S15; S33.4. (See also Panel heating and cooling) applications, A53.8 asymmetry, A53.5 beam heating design, A53.4; S15.5 control, A46.4 design, A53.2, 3 direct infrared, A53.1, 4, 8 equations, A53.2 floor reradiation, A53.5 infrared, A53.1, 4, 8; S15 beam heater design, S15.5 control, S15.4 efficiency, S15.3 electric, S15.2 F = 2009 Fundamentals I.29 energy conservation, S15.1 gas-fired, S15.1 indirect, S15.2 maintenance, S15.5 oil-fired, S15.3 precautions, S15.4 reflectors, S15.4 installation, A53.8 intensity, S15.1 panels, A53.1, 8; S33.4; S35.6 applications, A53.8 control, A46.4 cooling, A53.1 heating, S33.4 hydronic systems, S35.6 radiation patterns, A53.5 snow-melting systems, A50.16 terminology adjusted dry-bulb temperature, A53.1 ambient temperature, A53.1 angle factor, S15.5 effective radiant flux (ERF), A53.2; S15.5 fixture efficiency, S15.4 mean radiant temperature (MRT), A53.1; S6.1 operative temperature, A53.1 pattern efficiency, S15.4 radiant flux distribution, S15.6 radiation-generating ratio, S15.4 test instruments, A53.7 total space heating, A53.6 Radiant time series (RTS), F18.20 factors, F18.21 load calculations, nonresidential, F18.2, 20 Radiation atmospheric, A33.5 diffuse, F15.15, 18 electromagnetic, F10.16 ground-reflected, F15.15 optical waves, F10.18 radiant balance, F4.15 radio waves, F10.18 solar, A33.3 thermal, F4.2, 11; S6.1 angle factors, F4.13 blackbody, F4.11 spectral emissive power, F4.12 black surface, F4.2 display cases, R46.4 energy transfer, F4.11 exchange between surfaces, F4.14 in gases, F4.16 gray, F4.2, 12 heat transfer, F4.2 infrared, F15.16 Kirchoff’s law, F4.12 monochromatic emissive power, F4.12 nonblack, F4.12 transient, F4.8 Radiators, S35.1, 5 design, S35.3 nonstandard condition corrections, S35.3 types, S35.1 Radioactive gases, contaminants, F11.19 Radiometers, A53.7 Radio stations, A3.8 Radon, F10.10, 12, 17 control, A43.3; A45.12; F16.20 indoor concentrations, F11.17 Rail cars air conditioning, A9.15 air distribution, A9.17 heaters, A9.17 vehicle types, A9.15 Railroad tunnels, ventilation design, A13.15 diesel locomotive facilities, A13.25 equipment, A13.31 locomotive cooling requirements, A13.15 tunnel aerodynamics, A13.16 tunnel purge, A13.16 Rain, and building envelopes, F25.3 RANS. See Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation Rapid-transit systems. See Mass-transit systems Rayleigh number, F4.18 RC curves. See Room criterion (RC) curves Receivers ammonia refrigeration systems high-pressure, R3.3 piping, R3.14 through-type, R3.15 halocarbon refrigerant, R2.21 liquid overfeed systems, R1.7 Recycling refrigerants, R8.3 Reflectors, S15.4 Refrigerant/absorbent pairs, F2.15 Refrigerant-control devices, R44 air conditioners, S48.6; S49.2 automobile air conditioners, A9.8 capillary tubes, R44.23 coolers, liquid, S41.5 heat pumps system, S8.7 unitary, S48.10 lubricant separators, R44.23 pressure transducers, R44.4 sensors, R44.4 short tube restrictors, R44.30 switches differential control, R44.2 float, R44.3 pressure control, R44.1 valves, control check, R44.20 condenser pressure regulators, R44.14 condensing water regulators operation, R44.20 year-round, R44.19 expansion constant pressure, R44.11, 13 electric, R44.10 thermostatic, R44.5 float, R44.16 pressure relief devices, R44.21 solenoid, R44.17 suction pressure regulators, R44.14 Refrigerants, F29.1 absorption solutions, F30.1, 69 ammonia, F30.1, 34-35; R5.3 chemical reactions, R5.5 refrigeration system practices, R3.1 ammonia/water, F30.1, 69 analysis, R5.4 automobile air conditioners, A9.11 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications I.30 azeotropic, F2.6 bakeries, R28.7 carbon dioxide, F30.1, 38-39 refrigeration system practices, R3.26 cascade refrigeration systems, R39.3 CFC conversion, R7.27 compatibility with other materials, R5.8 database, R5.11 elastomers, R5.10 electrical insulation, R5.8 plastics, R5.10 compositional groups, R5.1 ammonia, R5.3 chlorofluorocarbons, R5.1 fluoroethanes, R5.3 fluoroethers, R5.3 fluoromethanes, R5.3 fluoropropanes, R5.3 hydrocarbons, R5.3 hydrochlorofluorocarbons, R5.1 hydrofluorocarbons, R5.3 computer analysis, A39.12 contaminants in, R6 generation by high temperature, R5.8 cryogenic fluids, F30.1, 54-67 effect on materials, F29.9 emissions, R8.1 environmental acceptability, R5.1 halocarbons, F30.1; R5.3 azeotropic blends, F30.1, 33 ethane series, F30.1, 10-21 flow rate, R2.1 hydrolysis, R5.5 methane series, F30.1, 2-3 propane series, F30.1, 25 refrigeration system practices, R2.1 thermal stability, R5.4 zeotropic blends, F30.1, 26-31 hydrocarbons, F30.1; R5.3 ethane, F30.1, 42-43 ethylene, F30.50-51 isobutane, F30.48-49 methane, F30.1, 40-41 n-butane, F30.1, 46-47 propane, F30.1, 44-45 propylene, F30.1, 52-53 leak detection, F29.8, R8.2; R45.4 lines oil management, R2.10 sizing, R2.2 lithium bromide/water, F30.1, 69 lubricant solutions, R7.8 moisture in, R6.1 performance, F29.6 phaseout, costs, A36.8 piping, R2.1 design, R33.1 insulation, R33.1 pressure drop discharge lines, R2.5 liquid lines, R2.2 suction lines, R2.4 properties, F29.1; R5.1, 4 electrical, F29.5 global environmental, F29.1 physical, F29.4 rail car air conditioning, A9.15 reclamation, R8.3 F = 2009 Fundamentals 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals removing contaminants, R8.2 recovery, R8.2 recycling, R8.3 safety, F29.8 safety classifications, F29.2 sound velocity, F29.5 systems chemistry, R5.1 lubricants, R7.1 thermodynamic properties pressure-enthalpy diagrams, F30.1 saturated liquid and vapor data, F30.1 tabular data, F30.1 thermophysical properties, R3.26 transport properties, F30 water/steam, F30.1, 36-37 zeotropic, F2.6, 9 Refrigerant transfer units (RTU), liquid chillers, S42.12 Refrigerated facilities, R14 air circulation, R11.10 purification, R11.10 automated, R14.4, 15 construction, R14.4 controlled-atmosphere storage, R14.3 controls, R11.10 design building configuration, R14.1 initial building considerations, R14.1 location, R14.1 shipping and receiving docks, R14.3 single-story structures, R14.2 specialized storage facilities, R14.3 stacking arrangement, R14.2 utility space, R14.3 freezers, R14.10 insulation, R14.12 load calculations, R13.1 refrigerated rooms, R14.4 refrigeration systems condensate drains, R14.9 defrosting, R14.9 fan-coil units, R14.8 multiple installations, R14.10 unitary, R14.7 valves, R14.9 sanitation, R11.10 temperature pulldown, R14.15 vapor retarders, R14.5, 12 Refrigeration, F1.1. (See also Absorption) absorption cycle, F2.13 air coolers, forced-circulation, R42.1 air transport, R32.3, 4 ammonia systems, R3 compressors cooling, R3.11, 12 piping, R3.10, 12 types, R3.2 controls, R3.6 converting systems, R3.21 equipment, R3.2 evaporative condensers, R3.15 liquid recirculation (overfeed), R3.21, 22 lubricant management, R3.6 multistage systems, R3.20 piping, R3.7 safety, R3.25 system selection, R3.1 two-stage screw compressor, R3.20 valves, R3.8 vessels, R3.3 autocascade systems, R39.1 azeotropic mixture, F2.6 beverage plants, R26.11 biomedical applications, R40.1 breweries, R26.3 carbon dioxide systems, R3.26 cascade systems compressors, R39.5 refrigerants, R39.4 chemical industry, R37.1, 2, 5 coefficient of performance (COP), F2.3, 13 compression cycles Carnot cycle, F2.6, 7 Lorenz cycle, F2.8 multistage, F2.10 zeotropic mixture, F2.9 concrete, R36.1 condensers, cascade, R43.1 food eggs and egg products, R21.1 fish, R19.1 vegetables, R24.1 food processing facilities, R27.1 banana ripening rooms, R23.5 control of microorganisms, R12.3 meat plants, R17.1 food service equipment, R47 fruits, fresh, R22.1; R23 halocarbon systems, R2 accessories, R2.28 heat exchangers, R2.28 lubricant management, R2.10 piping, R2.2 refrigerant receivers, R2.23 subcoolers, R2.29 valves, R2.10 heat reclaim, service water heating, A49.4, 25 ice rinks, R35.1 insulation, R33.1 liquid overfeed systems, R1.1 loads, R13.1; R27.3 low-temperature autocascade systems, R39.1 cascade systems, R39.3 heat transfer, R39.9 material selection, R39.6 secondary coolants, R39.11 single-refrigerant systems, R39.2 lubricant coolers, R43.2 marine, R31 fishing vessels, R31.7 ships’ stores, R31.4 refrigerated-facility design, R14.1 retail food store systems, R46.12 secondary coolant systems, R4.1 applications, R4.5 coolant selection, R4.1 design control valves, R4.2 expansion tanks, R4.3, 5 piping, R4.2 pulldown time, R4.4 storage tanks, R4.2 system costs, R4.5 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications Composite Index soils, subsurface, R36.3, 4 systems charging, factory, R45.4 chemical reactions, R5.4 component balancing, R43.1 contaminant control, R6 of moisture, R6.1 retrofitting, during, R6.9 copper plating, R5.7 dehydration, factory, R45.1 design balance points, R43.2 energy and mass balance, R43.3 evaluating system chemistry, R5.10 moisture in, R45.1 performance, R43.4 reactions, R5.7 testing, factory, R45.4 ultralow-temperature, R39.1 wineries, R26.8 Refrigeration load, R13. (See also Load calculations) calculations, air-and-water systems, S5.11 Refrigeration oils, R7. (See also Lubricants) Refrigerators commercial blast, R47.3 energy efficiency, R47.7 freezers, R47.3 temperatures, R47.2 types, R47.1 cryocoolers, R38.11 food service, R47.1 household absorption cycle, R41.8 cabinet construction, R48.3 defrosting, R48.6 design and construction, R48.1 efficiency, R48.1 ice makers, R48.3 refrigeration systems, R48.5 testing, R48.9 mortuary, R47.3 retail food store display, A2.3; R46.1 storage, R46.11 walk-in, R47.3 Regulators. (See also Valves) condenser pressure, R44.14 condensing water, R44.19 draft, S34.30 pressure, steam, S10.9 suction pressure, R44.14 Residential systems, A1 air cleaners, S28.9 air leakage, F16.15 calculation, F16.23 climatic infiltration zones, F16.19 dehumidifiers, A1.5 duct construction, S18.2 equipment sizing, A1.2 forced-air systems air outlets and returns, S9.3 selection, S9.10 controls, S9.3 design, S9.1, 3 distribution design, S9.7 ducts, S9.6 efficiency testing, S9.11 F = 2009 Fundamentals I.31 furnace, S32.1 heating performance climate effect, S9.15 dynamic simulation model (HOUSE), S9.12 factors, S9.12 night setback effect, S9.15, 16 zone control, S9.9 furnaces, S32.1 gas burners, S30.5 heating and cooling systems, A1.1 humidifiers, S9.1; S21.5 kitchen ventilation, A31.27 load calculations, F17.1 oil burners, S30.11 ventilation, F16.17 water heating, A49.11 Resistance, thermal, F4.1, 3, 8; F25; F26. (See also R-values) calculation, F4.1 contact, F4.8 of flat assembly, F25.5 of flat building components, F25.5 overall, F4.3 radiant panels, surface film, F25.1 Resistance temperature devices (RTDs); F7.9, F36.6 Resistivity, thermal, F25.1 Resource utilization factor (RUF), F34.2 Respiration of fruits and vegetables, R9.18 Restaurants air balancing, A31.18 air conditioning, A3.4, 5 commercial and public buildings, A3.4 energy conservation, A31.21 kitchen ventilation, A31.1 service water heating, A49.13, 14, 19 Retail facilities, A2 air conditioning, A2.1 convenience centers, A2.6 department stores, A2.5 design considerations, A2.1 discount and big-box stores, A2.2 load determination, A2.1 malls, A2.6 multiple-use complexes, A2.7 refrigeration, R46.1, R47 shopping centers, A2.6 small stores, A2.1 supermarkets, A2.2 refrigerators, R46.1 service water heating, A49.14 Retrofit performance monitoring, A40.3 Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation, F13.3; F24.10 airflow around buildings simulation; F24.10 Reynolds number, F3.3 Rice, drying, A23.9 RMS. See Root mean square (RMS) Road tunnels, A13.4 carbon monoxide allowable concentrations, A13.7 analyzers and recorders, A13.9, 10 computer analysis, A13.2 vehicle emissions, A13.7 ventilation air quantities, A13.7, 8 computer analysis, A13.2 controls, A13.9 ducts, A13.8 emergency, A13.1 air quantities, A13.8 enclosed facility, A13.4 enhancements, A13.7 equipment, A13.31 hybrid, A13.7 mechanical, A13.4 natural, A13.4 normal air quantities, A13.7 normal conditions, A13.1 pressure evaluation, A13.8 temporary, A13.1 Roof ponds, Legionella pneumophila control, A48.7 Roofs air movement, A43.6 insulation, A43.5, F27.8 moisture control, A43.6 radiant barriers, A43.5 U-factors, F27.2 wall interface, A43.7 Room air distribution, A56 Room criterion (RC) curves, A47.31; F8.17 Mark II, A47.32 Root mean square (RMS), F36.1 Rotary vane compressors, S37.13 Rotative speed, F36.25 Roughness factors, ducts, F21.6 RTDs. See Resistance temperature devices (RTDs) RTS. See Radiant time series (RTS) RTU. See Refrigerant transfer units (RTU) RUF. See Resource utilization factor (RUF) Rusting, of building components, F25.15 R-values, F23; F25; F26 (See also Resistance, thermal) zone method of calculation, F27.5, 6 Safety air cleaners, A45.14; S28.12 ammonia systems, R3.25 automatic controls, A46.20 burners, S30.1, 2, 19 chemical plants, R37.2 cryogenic equipment, R38.28 electrical, A55.1 filters, air, S28.12 industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S29.29 nuclear facilities, A26.1 refrigerants, F29.2, 8 service water heating, A49.9 solar energy systems, A33.24 thermal insulation and fires, F23.5 thermal insulation for, F23.2 water systems, S14.9 wood stoves, S33.6 against attacks, A58.1 UVGI systems, S16.8 Safety showers, Legionella pneumophila control, A48.7 Sanitation food production facilities, R12 control of microorganisms, R12.4 egg processing, R21.12 HACCP, R12.4 meat processing, R17.1 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications I.32 poultry processing, R18.9 regulations and standards, R12.5 refrigerated storage facilities, R11.10 Scale control, A48.4 humidifiers, S21.4 service water systems, A49.8 water treatment, A48.4 Schematic design, A57.8 Schneider system, R14.7 Schools air conditioning, A6.3 service water heating, A49.21 elementary, A49.13 high schools, A49.13, 16 Security. See Chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents Seeds, storage, A23.11 Seismic restraint, A47.46; A54.1 anchor bolts, A54.14 design, A54.1 design calculations examples, A54.15-21 static analysis, A54.3, 7 duct construction, S18.6 dynamic analysis, A54.2 installation problems, A54.22 snubbers, A54.15 terminology, A54.2 weld capacities, A54.15 Sensible heat psychrometrics, F1.18 ratio, S49.2 refrigeration load, R13 Sensors automatic controls, F7.8, 10 location, A46.23 Separators, lubricant, R44.23 Service water heating, A49 combined heat and power (CHP), S7.43 commercial and institutional, A49.11 corrosion, A49.8 design considerations, A49.4 distribution system for commercial kitchens, A49.7 manifolding, A49.8 piping, A49.4 pressure differential, A49.5 return pump sizing, A49.6 two-temperature service, A49.8 geothermal energy, A32.9 indirect, A49.3, 25 industrial, A49.23 Legionella pneumophila, A49.9 pipe sizing, F22.8 requirements, A49.11 residential, A49.11 safety, A49.9 scale, A49.8 sizing water heaters instantaneous and semi-instantaneous, A49.23 refrigerant-based, A49.25 storage heaters, A49.11, 15 solar energy, A33.13, 18, 25; A49.4 steam, S10.1 system planning, A49.2 terminology, A49.1 F = 2009 Fundamentals 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals thermal storage, A34.11, S50.11 water heating equipment placement, A49.10 sizing, A49.11, 23, 25 types, A49.2 water quality, A49.8 SES. See Subway environment simulation (SES) program Shading coefficient, F15.28 devices, indoor, F15.49 fenestration, F15.2 Ship docks, A3.10 Ships, A11 air conditioning air distribution, A11.3, 4 controls, A11.3, 4 design criteria, A11.1, 3 equipment selection, A11.2, 4 systems, A11.2, 4 cargo holds, R31.2 cargo refrigeration, R31.1 coils, A11.4 ducts, A11.3 fish freezing, R31.8 fish refrigeration icing, R19.1; R31.7 refrigerated seawater, R19.2; R31.8 merchant, A11.1 naval surface, A11.3 refrigerated stores, R31.4 refrigeration systems, R31.1 regulatory agencies, A11.3 Single-duct systems, all-air, S4.10 Skating rinks, R35.1 Skylights, and solar heat gain, F15.19 Slab heating, A50 Slab-on-grade foundations, A43.2 moisture control, A43.3 SLR. See Solar-load ratio (SLR) Smoke management, A52 acceptance testing, A52.18 atriums, A52.12 computer analysis, A52.12, 14 design door-opening forces, A52.6 flow areas airflow paths, A52.6 effective, A52.7 open doors, A52.8 pressure differences, A52.8 weather data, A52.8 elevators, A52.11 hospitals, A7.5 in justice facilities, A8.3 large open spaces plugholing, A52.16 plume, A52.14 prestratification layer, A52.16 smoke filling, A52.14 steady clear height and upper layer exhaust, A52.14 steady fire, A52.13, 14 unsteady fire, A52.13, 14 zone fire models, A52.14 methods airflow, A52.5 buoyancy, A52.6 compartmentation, A52.4, 9 dilution near fire, A52.5 pressurization, A52.5, 9, 10 remote dilution, A52.4 rapid-transit systems, A13.12 road tunnels, A13.8 smoke dampers, A52.8 smoke movement buoyancy, A52.3 expansion, A52.3 HVAC systems, A52.4 stack effect, A52.2 wind, A52.3 stairwells analysis, A52.10 compartmentation, A52.9 open doors, A52.10 pressurization, A52.10, A52.11 pressurized, A52.9 zones, A52.12 Smudging air outlets, S19.3 Snow-melting systems, A50 back and edge heat losses, A50.6, 8 control, A50.10 electric system design constant wattage systems, A50.15 electrical equipment, A50.13 gutters and downspouts, A50.17 heat flux, A50.13 idling, A50.18 heating elements, A50.13 infrared systems, A50.16 installation, A50.16 mineral insulated cable, A50.13 free area ratio, A50.1 freeze protection systems, A50.10, 17 heat balance, A50.1 heating requirement annual operating data, A50.8 heat flux equations, A50.2 hydronic and electric, A50.1 load frequencies, A50.6 surface size, A50.6 transient heat flux, A50.6 weather data, A50.6 wind speed, A50.6 hydronic system design components, A50.10 controls, A50.13 fluid heater, A50.12 heat transfer fluid, A50.10 piping, A50.11 pump selection, A50.13 thermal stress, A50.13 operating costs, A50.10 slab design, hydronic and electric, A50.8 snow detectors, A50.10 Snubbers, seismic, A54.15 Sodium chloride brines, F31.1 Soft drinks, R26.10 Soils. (See also Earth) stabilization, R36.3, 4 temperature calculation, S11.10 thermal conductivity, F26.12; S11.9 Solar energy, A33; S36.1 active systems, A33.16, 17, 19 airflow, A33.25 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications Composite Index collectors, A33.5, 6, 11, 25; S36.3 array design piping, S36.7 shading factor, S36.8 concentrating, A33.8 construction glazing, S36.4 insulation, S36.4 manifolds, S36.5 design and installation, A33.25 efficiency, A33.10 flat plate, A33.5, 6 glazing materials, A33.7 plates, A33.8 module design piping, S36.5 thermal expansion, S36.6 velocity limits, S36.6 mounting, A33.23 performance, A33.9; S36.8 steady-state conditions, S36.8 selection, S36.9 testing, S36.9 types, S36.3 constant, A33.1 control, A33.24, 26; S36.16 automatic temperature, S36.16 differential temperature controller, S36.16 hot-water dump, S36.17 overtemperature protection, S36.17 cooling systems, A33.16, 18, 26 absorption refrigeration, A33.18; S36.3, 9 sizing, A33.19 types, A33.16 design, installation, operation checklist, A33.25 design values, solar irradiation, A33.4 domestic hot water, A33.13, 25 equipment, S36.1 freeze protection, A33.24; S36.2, 17 heat exchangers, A33.12; S36.14 external, S36.15 freeze protection, S36.17 internal, S36.14 performance, S36.15 requirements, S36.14 heating systems, A33.16; A34.2; S50.2 active, A33.16, 17 air, S36.1, 7, 10 components, A33.11 control, A33.13 design, S36.1 direct circulation, S36.2 drain-down, A33.14 hybrid, A33.16 indirect circulation, S36.2 drainback, A33.15; S36.2 nonfreezing fluid, S36.2 water heating, A33.14 integral collector storage systems, A33.15; S36.3 liquid, S36.7, 10 freezing protection, S36.2 passive, A33.16 pool heating, A33.15 recirculation, A33.15 F = 2009 Fundamentals I.33 residential, A1.4 sizing, A33.19 thermosiphon, A33.13 heat pump systems, S8.4 hybrid systems, A33.16 hydraulics, A33.25 installation, A33.23 irradiation, A33.4 maintenance, A33.24 overheat protection, A33.24 passive systems, A33.16, 21 photovoltaic (PV) systems, A33.26; S36.18 quality and quantity, A33.1 radiation at earth’s surface, A33.3, 4 safety, A33.24 service water heating systems, A33.13, 18, 25; A34.2; A49.4; S50.2 combined with space heating, A33.18 sizing heating and cooling systems, A33.19 spectrum, A33.3 start-up procedure, A33.24 thermal storage systems, A33.11, 25 short circuiting, S36.13 sizing, S36.14 time, A33.1, 3 types, S36.13 uses, A33.25 Solar heat gain calculation, F15.17, 28 coefficient, F15.17 roof overhangs, F15.29 skylights, F15.19 Solar-load ratio (SLR), A33.21 Solar-optical glazing, F15.13 Solar radiation daylighting, F15.1 flux, F15.28 optical properties, F15.15 Solid fuel burners, S30.17 coal, F28.8 coke, F28.11 Solvent drying, constant-moisture, A28.6 Soot, F28.17 Sorbents, F32.1 Sorption isotherm, F25.8 Sound, F8. (See also Noise) air outlets, S19.2 attenuators, A47.12 bandwidths, F8.4 chillers, A47.10 combustion, F28.17 compressors, A47.10 computerized analysis, A39.8 cooling towers, S39.10 ducts, A47.7 loudness, F8.14 measurement, F36.27 basics, F8.5 instrumentation, A37.18; F8.4 level meter, F8.4 power, F8.2 pressure, F8.1 rating methods, A47.31 speed, F8.2 terminology bandwidths, F8.8 controlling, F8.10 decibel, F8.1 frequency, F8.2 frequency spectrum, F8.15 intensity, F8.2 level, F8.1 loudness, F8.14 pressure, F8.1 quality, F8.14 wavelength, F8.2 testing, A37.18 time averaging, F8.4 transmission, A37.19; A47.20 humidity affecting, S21.2 paths, F8.9 troubleshooting, A37.20 typical sources, F8.10 unit heaters, S27.6 Sound control, A47; F8 acoustical design of HVAC systems, A47.1 air handlers, S4.10 A-weighted sound level (dBA), A47.32; F8.15 barriers, A47.26; F8.11 ceiling sound transmission, A47.30 chillers, A47.10 clean spaces, A16.15 combustion turbines, S7.22 cooling towers, S39.10 data reliability, A47.1 design, A47.2, 35; F8.15 ducts, A47.7; S18.4 sound attenuation, A47.12; F8.12 branch division, A47 end reflection loss, A47.20 insulated flexible, A47.16 plenums, A47.12 sheet metal, A47.15 silencers, A47.16 sound transmission, A47.20 enclosures, F8.12 engines, S7.15 engine test facilities, A15.4 equipment sound levels, A47.3 fans, A47.4, 5 fume hood duct design, A47.27 hotels and motels, A5.7 indoor sound rating, A47.31 insertion loss, A47.16 justice facilities, A8.5, 6 mechanical equipment rooms, A47.28 noise criterion (NC) curves, A47.31; F8.16 outdoor criteria, A47.35 equipment, A47.26 piping, A47.44, 45 places of assembly, A4.1 return air system sound transmission, A47.30 rooftop air handlers, A47.6 room criterion (RC) curves, A47.31, 32; F8.17 room sound correction, A47.24 standards, A47.48 terminology, F8.10 transmission loss, A47.21 troubleshooting, A37.20; A47.46 variable-air-volume (VAV) systems, A47.5 Soybeans, drying, A23.7 Specific heat equation, F2.4 foods, R9.7 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications I.34 liquids, F33.2 materials, F33.1 Spot cooling evaporative, A51.12 industrial environments, A29.3, 5; A51.12 makeup air units, S27.8 mines, A27.10 Spot heating, A53.4 Stack effect duct design, F21.2 multizone airflow modeling, F13.14 smoke movement, A52.2 Stadiums, A4.4 Stainless steel boilers, S31.3 Stairwells, smoke control, A52.9 Standard atmosphere, U.S., F1.1 Standards, F39. (See also Codes) air cleaners, S28.3, 5 air conditioners, S48 packaged terminal, S49.7 room, S49.4 unitary, S48.5, 6 air distribution, A56.1 boilers, S31.5 chimneys, fireplaces, and gas vents, S34.29, 35 condensers, S38 evaporative, S38.18 water-cooled, S38.7 coolers, liquid, S41.4 data processing, A17.15 dehumidifiers, room, S24.3 duct construction, S18.1 commercial, S18.2 industrial, S18.4 residential, S18.2 electrical, A55.15 filters, air, S28.3, 5 furnaces, S32.11 heaters, S33.6, 7 heat pumps, S48 packaged terminal, S49.7 unitary, S48.5, 6 water-source, S48.12 indoor air quality (IAQ), F10.10 liquid chillers, S42.5 makeup air units, S27.9 motors, S44.2, 10 nuclear facilities, A26.10 pipe fittings, S45.2 piping, S11.19; S45.6 sound control, A47.48 ventilation, F16.18 vibration control, A47.48 Static electricity and humidity, S21.2 Steam quality, S10.2 sources, S10.2 testing, adjusting, balancing, A37.14 thermophysical properties, F30.1, 36-37 Steam systems, S10 air, effects of, S10.2 boilers, S10.3, S31.1 classification, S10.2 coils, air-heating, S26.1 combined heat and power (CHP) distribution, S7.44 combined steam and water, S10.15 F = 2009 Fundamentals 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals condensate removal, S10.6 drainage and return, S11.7 drip stations, S11.7 return pipes, S11.19 convection heating, S10.11 design, S10.2; S35.3 piping, S10.5 pressure, S10.4 distribution, S10.12 district heating and cooling, S11.18 district heating and cooling, S11.3, 19, 30 flash steam, S10.14 percentage, S10.2 flash tank, S10.14 gas, effects of, S10.2 generator buildings, A25.4 heat exchangers, S10.3 heating, A48.11 heat recovery direct recovery, S10.15 flash steam, S10.14 waste heat boilers, S10.3 makeup air units, S27.9 one-pipe systems, S10.11; 1993 Fundamentals, Chapter 33, pp. 18-19 (See explanation on first page of index.) piping distribution, S10.5 Hartford loop, S10.3 inlet orifices, S10.12 return, S10.3, 6 sizing, F22.12 supply, S10.3, 5, 12 terminal equipment, S10.6 temperature control, S10.13 terminal equipment forced-convection, S10.11 natural convection, S10.11 units, S35.1 piping design, S10.6 radiant panel, S10.11 traps, S10.7 turbines, S7.25 two-pipe systems, S10.12 unit heaters, S27.4 ventilators, S27.1 valves pressure-reducing, S10.9 safety, S10.9 temperature control, S10.13 water, effects of, S10.2 Steam traps, S10.7 Stefan-Boltzmann equation, F4.2, 11 Stevens’ law, F12.3 Stirling cycle, R38.14 Stokers, S30.17 Storage apples, A51.14; R22.1, 3 controlled atmosphere, R22.1, 3 bakery ingredients, R28.1 candy, R29.5 carbon dioxide, R26.12 citrus, A51.14; R23.3 cold, facility design, R14.1 compressed gases, A14.8 controlled-atmosphere (CA), R14.3 cryogenic fluids, R38.26 desiccant dehumidification, S23.8 high-pressure, S23.11 design, refrigerated-facility, R14.1 eggs, R21.5 farm crops, A23.9 fish fresh, R19.3 frozen, R19.7 flowers, cut, R11.12 food, canned or dried, R11.11 fruit dried, R29.7 fresh, R22.1 furs and fabrics, R11.11 ice, R34.4 meat products, frozen, R17.16 milk, R20.4 nursery stock, R11.12 nuts, R29.7 photographic materials, A20.3, 4 unprocessed, A20.1 potatoes, A51.14 poultry products, R18.10 refrigerated-facility design, R14.1 seeds, A23.11; R11.13 tanks, secondary coolant systems, R4.2 vegetables, R24.3 dried, R29.7 wine, R26.10 wood products, A24.2 Stoves, heating, S33.5 Stratification of air in places of assembly, A4.2 in plenums, A37.2 of water, in thermal storage tanks, A34.4, S50.4 Stroboscopes, F36.25 Subcoolers condensers, S38 evaporative, S38.17 water-cooled, S38.5 two-stage, R2.29 Subway environment simulation (SES) program, A13.2 Subway systems. (See also Mass-transit systems) car air conditioning, A9.16 station air conditioning, A13.13 ventilation, A13.10 Suction risers, R3.24 Sulfur content, fuel oils, F28.7 Superconductivity, diamagnetism, R38.5 Supervisory control, A41 air-handling systems air distribution, A41.2 sequencing, A41.26 set point reset, A41.27 boilers, optimizing, A41.3 building temperature set point night setback recovery, A41.27 precooling, A41.28 chilled-water pumps, A41.6, 16, 17 chillers load distribution, A41.21 sequencing, A41.6, 20, 23 computerized, A39.14 cooling systems without storage, A41.5 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications Composite Index cooling tower fans, A41.8, 12 cool thermal storage systems, A41.29 ice storage control optimization, A41.37 forecasting energy requirements, A41.31 optimization methods dynamic, A41.36 static, A41.32 system based, A41.33 performance measures, A41.2 Supply air outlets, S19.1. (See also Air outlets) Surface effect. See Coanda effect Surface transportation automobiles, A9.1 buses, A9.13 fixed-guideway vehicles, A9.18 mass transit, A9.12 rail cars, A9.15 Surface water heat pump (SWHP) heat exchanger, S48.12 subset of GSHPs, A32.11 Sustainability; F16.1, F35.1, S48.2 and air, noise, and water pollution, F35.3 chimney, S34.1 climate change, F35.3 design, A56.2 design process, F35.5 energy resources, F35.2 and green design, F35.1 infiltration, F16.1 in integrated building design, A57.3 material resources, F35.3 renewable energy, F35.2 and solid and liquid waste disposal, F35.3 unitary systems, S48.2 ventilation, F16.1 water use, F35.2 SVFs. See Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs) SWHP. See Surface water heat pump (SWHP) Swimming pools. (See also Natatoriums) dehumidifiers, S24.4 solar heating, A33.15 water chemistry, A4.7 water heating for, A49.22 Swine, recommended environment, A22.7 Symbols, F37 Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs), F10.5 Tachometers, F36.25 Tanks, secondary coolant systems, R4.2 Television studios, A3.8 Temperature ambient, A53.1 changeover, S5.11, 13 dew-point, F1.12, 13 dry-bulb, adjusted, A53.1 effective, A51.11; F9.20 humid operative, F9.21 mean radiant, A53.1; F9.10; F36.29; S6.1 measurement, F36.4 odors affected by, F12.2 operative, A53.1 plane radiant, F9.10; F36.29 radiant asymmetry, F9.11 sensors, F7.9 sol-air, F18.22 and task performance, F9.13 vertical differences, F9.15 F = 2009 Fundamentals I.35 wet-bulb, F1.12, 13 globe, F9.21 wet-globe, F9.22 wind chill index, F9.22 Temperature-controlled transport, R30.1 Temperature index, S21.2 Terminal units, A46.14; S19.8 air distribution, S4.15 boxes reheat, A46.14; S4.16 variable-air-volume (VAV), A47.6 bypass, S19.10 ceiling, S19.8 chilled beams, S5.7 constant volume, S4.16 dual-duct, S19.8 fan-coil, S5.4 fan-powered, A46.14; S4.16; S19.9 humidifiers, S4.17 induction, A46.15; S4.16 induction units, S5.8 radiant floor heat, S5.8 radiant panels, S5.8 reheat, S19.8 steam systems, S10.11 throttling, S4.16 unit ventilators, S5.6 variable-air-volume (VAV), S4.16 Terrorism. See Chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents Testing air cleaners, A45.15; S28.3 air conditioners, packaged terminal, S49.7 air leakage, fan pressurization, F16.14 clean spaces, A16.5 compressors centrifugal, S37.32 positive-displacement, S37.5 condensers, S38 evaporative, S38.18 water-cooled, S38.7 cooling towers, A37.15; S39.15 desiccant dehumidification for, S23.10, 11 duct efficiency, S9.11 fans, S20.4 filters, air, S28.3 heaters, S33.7 heat pumps packaged terminal air conditioners (PTACs), S49.7 water-source, S48.12 industrial exhaust systems, A30.8 radiant heating system, A53.7 refrigeration systems leak detection, R45.4 performance testing, R45.5 refrigerators, household, R48.9 smoke control systems, A52.18 solar collectors, S36.9 sound instrumentation, A37.18 procedure, A37.19 transmission problems, A37.19, 24 vibration equipment, A37.22 instrumentation, A37.21 isolators, A37.21; A47.47 piping transmission, A37.24 procedure, A37.21 Testing, adjusting, and balancing. (See also Balancing) air diffusers, A37.2 air distribution systems, A37.3 reporting results, A37.6 airflow measurement, A37.2 balancing procedure, A37.5 central plant chilled-water systems, A37.14 cooling towers, A37.15 design considerations, A37.1 dual-duct systems, A37.4 duct design, F21.16 energy audit field survey, A37.17 fluid flow measurement, A37.11 HVAC systems, A37.1 hydronic systems, A37.6 heat transfer versus flow, A37.6, 7 water-side balancing instrumentation, A37.8 proportional method, A37.9 rated differential method, A37.10 sizing balancing valves, A37.8 temperature difference method, A37.9 total heat transfer method, A37.11 induction systems, A37.5 instruments, A37.3 sound transmission problems, A37.19, 24 steam distribution systems, A37.14 temperature controls, A37.16 terminology, A37.1 variable-air-volume (VAV) systems, A37.6 TETD/TA. See Total equivalent temperature differential method with time averaging (TETD/TA) TEWI. See Total equivalent warning impact (TEWI) Textile processing plants, A19 air conditioning design air cleaning, A19.5, 7 air distribution, A19.6 collector systems, A19.5 health considerations, A19.7 energy conservation, A19.7 fabric making, A19.3 fiber making, A19.1 yarn making, A19.2 TFM. See Transfer function method (TFM) Theaters, A4.3 Thermal and water vapor transmission date, F26 Thermal bridges, F25.7 building envelopes, A43.8 Thermal comfort. See Comfort Thermal control, and moisture control; S24.1 Thermal emittance, F25.2 Thermal energy storage (TES), S17.4 Thermal mass, of buildings, A43.11 (See also Building thermal mass) Thermal properties, F26.1 air spaces, F26.1 insulation materials, F26.2 acoustics, F26.12 health, F26.11 mechanical properties, F26.11 safety, F26.11 Thermal properties of food, R9 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications I.36 Thermal resistivity, F25.1 Thermal storage, A34 applications, A34.16; S50.16 benefits, A34.3; S50.3 building mass, A34.14; S50.14 combined heat and power (CHP), S7.40 controls, A34.1; S50.1 sequence, A34.23; S50.23 strategies, A41.27 precooling, A41.28 cool storage, A34.1, 17; A41.2; S50.1, 17 district cooling, A34.17; S11.4; S50.17 district heating, A34.7; S11.4; S50.7 electrically charged storage, A34.11; S50.11 brick storage heaters, A34.12; S50.12 central furnace, A34.13; S50.13 heat pump boosters, A34.13; S50.13 room units, A34.12; S50.12 underfloor heat, A34.14; S50.14 water heaters, A34.11, 13; S50.11, 13 equipment cooling, A34.4; S50.4 heating, A34.11; S50.11 heat storage, A34.1, 11; S50.1, 11 ice storage, A34.1, 2; R34.3; S50.1, 2 charging and discharging, A41.29 control optimization, A41.37 encapsulated ice, A34.2, 9, 11; S50.2, 9, 11 harvesting system, A34.2, 9; S50.2, 9 ice on coil, A34.1, 7, 8; S50.1, 7, 8 piping, A34.21; S50.21 slurries, A34.10; S50.10 industrial refrigeration, A34.17; S50.17 insulation, A34.6; S50.6 latent energy change, A34.2; S50.2 media, A34.2, 4; S50.2, 4 mission-critical operations, A34.17; S50.17 off-peak, heating, A34.11; S50.11 operation, A34.23; S50.23 phase-change materials, A34.2, 11, 21; S50.2, 11, 21 piping, ice storage, A34.21; S50.21 process cooling, A34.17; S50.17 retrofits, A34.12; S50.12 solar energy systems, A33.11, 16, 25; A34.2; S36.3, 10; S50.2 system sizing, A34.17; S50.17 terminology, A34.1; S50.1 water storage, A34.4, 27; S50.4, 27 aquifers, A34.6; S50.6 performance, A34.5; S50.5 tank insulation, A34.6; S36.12; S50.6 temperature range, A34.4; S50.4 thermal stratification, A34.4, 5; S50.4, 5 water heaters, A34.11, 13; S50.11, 13 water systems, medium and high temperature, S14.9 water treatment, A34.6; S50.6 Thermistors, R44.4 Thermocouples, R44.4 Thermodynamics, F2.1 absorption refrigeration cycles, F2.13 bubble point, F2.5 compressed liquid, F2.2 compression refrigeration cycles, F2.6 cooling and freezing of foods, R10.1 cycle, F2.2 F = 2009 Fundamentals 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals dew point, F2.6 dry saturated vapor, F2.2 enthalpy, F2.4 entropy, F2.4 equations of state, F2.3 laws, F2.2 liquid, F2.2 multicomponent systems, F2.5 principles, F2.1 process, F2.2 properties, F2.1 calculation, F2.4 zeotropic mixture, F2.9 pure substance, F2.2 of refrigerants, F30 refrigeration cycle analysis, F2.3 saturated liquid or vapor, F2.2 subcooled liquid, F2.2 superheated vapor, F2.2 terminology, F2.1 vapor, F2.2 Thermometers, F36.5 black globe, A53.7 error sources, F36.5 infrared radiometers, A53.7; F36.9 thermography, F36.9 liquid-in-glass, F36.5 resistance semiconductors, F36.7 temperature devices (RTDs), F36.6 thermistors, F36.7 thermocouples, F36.7 Thermopile, F7.4; F36.8; R36.4 Thermosiphons heat exchangers, S25.14 solar energy systems, A33.13 Thermostats heater control, S33.2, 4 heating/cooling, F7.11 location, A46.23 types, F7.11 Three-pipe distribution, S5.4 Tobacco smoke contaminants, A45.2, 7, 11; F11.2, 17 environmental (ETS), F10.6 Tollbooths air quality criteria, A13.25 ventilation, A13.25, 31 Total equivalent warming impact (TEWI), R5.1; R46.16 Trailers and trucks, refrigerated, R30. (See also Cargo containers) Transducers, pneumatic pressure, F7.9 Transfer function method (TFM), A39.6 Transmittance, thermal, F25.1 of flat building component, F25.6 thermal bridging, F25.7 hot-box method, F25.7 Transmitters, pneumatic pressure, F7.9 Transpiration, R9.19 Transportation centers commercial and public buildings, A3.9 ventilation, A13.10, 22 Transport properties of refrigerants, F30 Traps ammonia refrigeration systems liquid, R3.17 liquid level indicators, R3.5 purge units, R3.5 suction accumulator, R3.4 vertical suction, R3.4 steam systems, S10.7 thermostatic, S10.7 Trucks, refrigerated, R30. (See also Cargo containers) Tuning automatic control systems, F7.18 Turbines, S7 benefits economic, S17.2 environmental, S17.2 chiller systems, S17.4 absorption, S17.4 mechanical, S17.4 thermal energy storage (TES), S17.4 combustion, S7.18, 46; S17.1 Brayton cycle, S7.18 components, S7.18 controls, S7.22 dual-shaft, S7.19 emissions, S7.22 evaporative cooling applications, S7.21; S17.3 exhaust gas systems, S7.22 fuels, S7.20 heat recovery, S7.37 instruments, S7.22 lubrication, S7.22 maintenance, S7.22 noise control, S7.22 performance, S7.19 single-shaft, S7.19 split-shaft, S7.19 starting systems, S7.22 thermal output, S7.34 engine test facilities, gas, A15.3 expansion, S7.31; S42.1 fogging, S17.3 gas, S7.18 evaporative cooling, A51.13 microturbines S7.18 steam applications, S7.47 axial flow, S7.25 heat recovery extraction turbines, S7.38 noncondensing turbines, S7.38 maintenance, S7.31 wetted media, S17.3 Turbochargers, heat recovery, S7.35 Turbulence modeling, F13.3 identification, F13.10 Turbulent flow, fluids, F3.3 Turndown ratio, design capacity, S12.4 Two-pipe systems, S5.4; S12.19 air-to-transmission ratio, S5.12 central ventilation, S5.12 changeover temperature, S5.13 chilled-water, S12.19 electric heat, S5.14 nonchangeover design, S5.13 steam convection heating, S10.12 zoning, S5.14 U.S. Marshal spaces, A8.5 U-factor center-of-glass, F15.4 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications Composite Index doors; F15.12 edge-of-glass, F15.4 fenestration products, F15.6 of flat building assembly, F25.7 frame, F15.4 thermal transmittance, F15.4 doors, F27.8 windows, F27.8 Ultralow-penetration air (ULPA) filters, S28.7; S29.2 Ultraviolet (UV), S16 fixture configurations, S16.5 lamps, S16.1, 3 germicidal, S16.3 aging, S16.5 ballasts S16.4 cooling and heating effects, S16.5 maintenance, S16.8 photodegradation, S16.8 systems, S16.1 terminology, S16.1 Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), S16.1 fundamentals, S16.2 lamp irradiance, S16.5 systems, S16.6 in-duct airstream disinfection, S16.6 safety, S16.8 surface disinfection, S16.6 upper-air, S16.7 Uncertainty analysis measurement, A40.12, 13 precision uncertainty, F36.4 sources, F36.3 systematic uncertainty, F36.4 statistical regression, A40.13 Unitary systems, S48 floor-by-floor systems, S2.6 heat pumps, S2.3; S48.1, 8, 10 outdoor equipment, S2.8 self-contained, S2.6 split systems, S2.6; S48.1 through-the-wall, S2.3 window-mounted, S2.3 Unit heaters. See Heaters, S27.4 Units and conversions, F38.1 Unit ventilators, S27.1 Utility interfacing, electric, S7.44 UV. See Ultraviolet (UV) UVGI. See Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) Vacuum cooling, of fruits and vegetables, R15.9 Validation, of airflow modeling, F13.9, 10, 17 Valves, S46. (See also Regulators) actuators, S46.5 ammonia refrigeration systems control, R3.8 float control, R3.19 relief, R3.10 solenoid, R3.10 stop, R3.8 authority, S46.8 automatic, S46.4 actuators, S46.4 applications, S46.9 control, F7.4 computerized, S46.6 F = 2009 Fundamentals I.37 expansion, S22.2 flow characteristics, S46.7 sizing, S46.8 types, S46.6 backflow-prevention devices, S46.13 balancing, S46.9 sizing, A37.8 body styles, S46.2 cavitation, S46.2 check, R44.20; S46.12 compressors, reciprocating, S37.10 condensing-pressure-regulating, R44.14 constant-pressure expansion, R44.13 control valves, F3.8 coefficient, F3.9 discharge bypass, R44.15 expansion constant-pressure, R44.11, 13 electric, R44.10 thermostatic, R44.5 float control, R44.16 flow coefficient, S46.2, 9 geothermal energy, A32.7 halocarbon refrigeration systems equivalent lengths, R2.10 float control, R2.26 hydronic systems control, S12.15 safety relief, S12.20 manual, S46.3 selection, S46.3 materials, S46.1 multiple-purpose, S46.10 noise, S46.2 pressure drop, F22.1, 8 pressure-reducing makeup water, S46.12 pressure relief, S46.10 safety, R44.21 ratings, S46.1 refrigerant control, R44.5 regulating and throttling, R44.10 safety, S46.10 solar energy systems, A33.12 solenoid, R44.17; S46.6 steam system, S10.9, 13 stop-check, S46.13 suction pressure regulating, R44.14 thermostatic, S10.13; S46.11 water hammer, S46.2 zone control, S10.13 Vaporization systems, S17.4 liquefied natural gas (LNG), S17.4 Vapor pressure, F27.8, F33.2 Vapor retarders, A43.3, F23.9 jackets, F23.9 all-service, F23.9 Variable-air-volume (VAV) systems all-air dual-duct, S4.12 single-duct, S4.11 control, A41.2, 27 diversity, A37.5 dual-duct systems, S4.12 duct static pressure control, A46.8, 9 fan selection, A47.5 sequencing, A46.10 unstable operation, A46.10 humidity control, S21.8 museums, galleries, archives, and libraries, A21.19 pressure-dependent systems, A37.4 pressure-independent systems, A37.4 single-duct, S4.11 sound control, A47.5 static pressure control, A37.4 static pressure reset, A41.27 system types, A37.5 terminal boxes, A46.14; A47.6 testing, adjusting, balancing, A37.4 variable-speed drives, S44.9 versus constant-air-volume (CAV), A14.12 Variable refrigerant flow (VRF), S48.1, 13 Variable-speed drives, S44.9 carrier frequencies effect on drive ratings, S44.12 effect on motor noise, S44.11 conductor impedance, S44.10 control, S44.9 harmonic disturbances, S44.12 load side, S44.13 motors, S44.10 impedance, S44.10 pulse width modulation, S44.10 transistors, S44.9 voltage waveform distortion, S44.12 VAV. See Variable-air-volume (VAV) systems Vegetables, R24 air transport, R32.1 cooling, R15.1 deterioration rate, R11.1 display refrigerators, R46.8 dried, storage, R29.7 frozen, R27.3 misters and Legionella pneumophila control, A48.7 refrigeration, R24.1 storage, R24.3 thermal properties, R9.1 transport, R24.2 Vehicles ac- or dc-powered, transit, A9.16 design, R30.1 equipment attachment provisions, R30.3 sanitation, R30.3 temperature-controlled, R30.1 use, R30.9 Vena contracta, F3.4 Vending machines, R47.5 Ventilation, F16 age of air, F16.4 air change effectiveness, F16.5 aircraft, A10.1, 4 air exchange rate, F16.3, 12 airflow, F16.3 animal environments, A22.5 bus garages, A13.20 bus terminals, A13.22 cargo containers, R30.5 climatic infiltration zones, F16.19 dilution, A29.2; A45.5 displacement, F20.16; S4.14 design, F20.16 driving mechanisms, F16.12 effectiveness, F16.5 engine test facilities, A15.1 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications I.38 forced, F16.1 garages, residential, F16.20 gaseous contaminant control, A45.5 greenhouses, A22.13 health care facilities, A7.1 hospitals, A7.2 nursing facilities, A7.14 outpatient, A7.13 hybrid, F16.14 indoor air quality (IAQ), F16.10 industrial environments, A29 exhaust systems, A30.1 kitchens, A31 laboratories, A14.8 latent heat load, F16.11 leakage function, F16.14 mechanical, F16.1; F24.7 mines, A27 natatoriums, A4.6 natural airflow, F16.1, 12 guidelines, F16.14 stack effect, F16.13 wind, F16.13; F24.7 nuclear facilities, A26.4 odor dilution, F12.5 power plants, A25.3 railroad tunnels, A13.14 rapid-transit systems, A13.10 residential, F16.17 road tunnels, A13.4 roof ventilators, A29.3 security concerns, A58.3 sensible heat load, F16.11 ships, A11.1 standards, F16.18 terminology, F16.1 thermal loads, F16.11 tollbooths, A13.24 wind effect on, F24.7 Ventilators roof, A29.3 unit capacity, S27.3 control, A46.17; S27.3 location, S27.1 selection, S27.3 types, S27.1 Venting furnaces, S32.2 gas appliances, S34.19 oil-fired appliances, S34.21 Verification, of airflow modeling, F13.9, 10, 17 Vessels, ammonia refrigeration systems, R3.3 Vibration, F8.18 compressors centrifugal, S37.34 positive-displacement, S37.5 scroll, S37.26 single-screw, S37.18 critical speeds, S20.8 health effects, F10.14 measurement, F36.28 instrumentation, A37.21 testing, A37.21 Vibration control, A47 air handlers, S4.10 chillers, A47.12 F = 2009 Fundamentals 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals clean spaces, A16.15 criteria, A47.38 data reliability, A47.1 ducts, A47.46 engines, S7.15 equipment vibration, A37.22 analysis, A37.23 fans, S20.9 floor flexibility, A47.47 isolators noise, A47.38 resonance, A47.48 specifications, A47.39 testing, A37.21; A47.47 piping connectors expansion joint or arched, A47.45 flexible, A47.45 hose, A47.45 noise, A47.44 resilient hangers and supports, A47.44 places of assembly, A4.1 resonance, A47.47 seismic restraint, A47.46; A54.1 standards, A47.48 troubleshooting, A37.23; A47.46 Viral pathogens, F10.7 Virgin rock temperature (VRT), and heat release rate, A27.3 Viscosity, F3.1 fuel oils, F28.6 lubricants, R7.5 modeling, F13.10 moist air, F1.19 Volatile organic compounds (VOC), F10.9 contaminants, A45.2 Voltage, A55.1 imbalance, S44.1 utilization, S44.1 Volume ratio, compressors rotary vane, S37.14 single-screw, S37.16 twin-screw, S37.21 VRF. See Variable refrigerant flow (VRF) VRT. See Virgin rock temperature (VRT) Walls, A43.3 airflow retarders, A43.4 glass block, F15.19 insulation, exterior, A43.4 masonry construction, A43.4, F27.4 moisture control, A43.4 panelized, A43.4 residential, A43.3 roof interface air leakage, A43.7 moisture control, A43.8 steel frame construction, F27.4 window interface, A43.6 wood frame construction, A43.3 wood-frame construction, F27.3 Warehouses, A3.11 Water boiler thermal models, F19.14 coils, S22.2 air-heating, S26.2 coolers, R26.11 distribution, S3.6; S12.10; S14.7 central plants, S11.5 district heating and cooling, S11.18 filtration, A48.7 hammer, F22.6 pipe stress, S11.7 heating geothermal energy systems, A32.9 solar energy systems, A33.13 water treatment for, A48.10 humidifier supply, S21.4 properties, A48.1; S14.2 refrigerant, F30.1, 36-37 in refrigerant systems. See Moisture, in refrigerant systems systems, pipe sizing, F22.5 thermal storage systems, A34.4, 11, 27, S50.4, 11, 27 use and sustainability, F35.2 vapor. (See also Moisture) control, F25.2 flow, F25.10 resistance, F25.2 retarders; F26.13 condensation, S21.2 refrigerant piping insulation, R33.4 refrigerated facilities, R14.5, 12 terminology, F25.2 transmission, F26.15 Water heaters blending injection, A49.4 boilers (indirect), A49.25 circulating tank, A49.4 combination, A49.4 electric, A49.2 gas-fired, A49.2 heat pump, S48.4 indirect, A49.3, 25 instantaneous, A49.3, 23 oil-fired, A49.2 placement, A49.10 refrigeration heat reclaim, A49.4, 25 semi-instantaneous, A49.3, 23 sizing, A49.11, 23, 25 solar energy, A49.4 storage, A49.2, 3, 11 terminology, A49.1 usable hot-water storage, A49.10 waste heat recovery, A49.4 Water/lithium bromide absorption components, R41.1 control, R41.6 double-effect chillers, R41.3 maintenance, R41.7 operation, R41.6 single-effect chillers, R41.2 single-effect heat transformers, R41.3 terminology, R41.1 Water-source heat pump (WSHP), S48.10 Water systems, S12 air elimination, S12.21 antifreeze, S12.23 precautions, S12.24 capacity control, S12.13 chilled-water, S12.1, 17 combined heat and power (CHP) distribution, S7.44 district heating and cooling, S11.19, 32 closed, S12.1, S12.2; S14.1 components, S12.2 R = 2006 Refrigeration S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications Composite Index condenser water, S13.1 closed, S13.3 once-through, S13.1 open cooling tower, S13.1 air and vapor precautions, S13.2 freeze protection, S13.3 piping, S13.2 water treatment, S13.2 overpressure precautions, S13.3 systems, S13.1 water economizer, S13.3 control valve sizing, S12.15 Darcy-Weisbach equation, S43.4 district heating and cooling, S11.3 dual-temperature (DTW), S12.1, 19 equipment layout, S12.22 expansion tanks functions of, S12.4, 11 sizing equations, S12.5 fill water, S12.20 four-pipe, S12.20 freeze prevention, S12.23 hot-water boilers, S31.1 combined heat and power (CHP) distribution, S7.45 district heating and cooling, S11.31 high-temperature (HTW), S12.1 loads, S12.2 low-temperature (LTW), S12.1 design considerations, S35.3 heating systems, S12.16 loads, S12.2 nonresidential, S12.16 terminal equipment, S35.1 medium- and high-temperature, S12.1; S14 air-heating coils, S14.8 boilers, S14.2 cascade systems, S14.6 circulating pumps, S14.6 control, S14.8 design, S14.2 direct-contact heaters, S14.6 direct-fired generators, S14.2 distribution, S14.7 expansion tanks, S14.4 heat exchangers, S14.8 piping design, S14.7 pressurization, S14.4 safety, S14.9 space heating, S14.8 thermal storage, S14.9 water treatment, S14.9 medium-temperature (MTW), S12.2 loads, S12.2 loads, S12.2 makeup, S12.20 open, S12.2; S13.1 pipe sizing, S12.23 piping, S12.11 water distributuion, S12.6 pressure drop determination, S12.23; S43.4 pumps, S43.1 pump curves, S12.6; S43.3 pumping compound, S12.8 distributed, S43.12 parallel, S12.7; S43.10 primary-secondary, S12.8; S43.11 series, S12.7; S43.11 variable-speed, S12.8, S43.12 standby pump, S12.8; S43.11 two-speed motors, S43.11 safety relief valves, S12.20 steam and, combined, S10.15 temperature classifications, S12.1 turndown ratio, S12.4 two-pipe, S12.19 water horsepower, S43.6 Water treatment, A48 air washers, A48.9; S40.9 biological control, A48.5 Legionella pneumophila, A48.6 boilers, A48.10 brine systems, A48.10 closed recirculating systems, A48.10 condensers, evaporative, S38.17 condenser water, S13.2 cooling towers, A48.4, 8; S39.13 corrosion control, A48.2, 9 evaporative coolers, S40.9 filtration, A48.7 fundamentals, A48.1 heating systems, A48.10 ice makers, A48.7, 9 medium- and high-temperature systems, S14.9 nonchemical (physical), A48.5 once-through systems, A48.9 open recirculating systems, A48.9 scale control, A48.4 sprayed coil units, A48.9 steam and condensate systems, A48.11 terminology, A48.11 thermal storage, A34.6, S50.6 Water vapor retarders, F26.13 Water wells, A32.24 Weather data climate change’s effect on, F14.13 design conditions, F14.1 calculation, F14.4 I.39 clear-sky solar radiation, F14.7 cooling, F14.6 dehumidification, F14.6 heating, F14.5 relationships, F14.5 return period, F14.6 design-day data, F14.11 residential infiltration zones, F16.19 sources, F14.4 Welding sheet metal, S18.6 Wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT), heat stress, A29.4 Wheels, rotary enthalpy, S25.10 Whirlpools and spas Legionella pneumophila control, A48.7 service water heating, A49.23 Wien’s displacement law, F4.12 Wind. (See also Climatic design information; Weather data) data sources, F24.6 effect on chimneys, S34.3, 32 smoke movement, A52.3 system operation, F24.7 pressure, F24.3 Wind chill index, F9.22 Windows. (See also Fenestration) air leakage, A43.7; F15.50 heat transfer, A43.6 moisture control, A43.7 solar gain, A43.6; F15.13, 17 U-factors; F15.4, 6, F27.8 wall interface, A43.6 Wind restraint design, A54.22 minimum design wind load, A54.22 Wineries refrigeration, R26.8 temperature control fermentation, R26.9 storage, R26.10 wine production, R26.8 Wood construction, and moisture, F25.8 dimensional changes, F25.8 Wood products facilities, A24.1 evaporative cooling, A51.13 process area, A24.1 storage, A24.2 Wood pulp, A24.2 Wood stoves, S33.5 World Wide Web (WWW), A39.17 WSHP. See Water-source heat pump (WSHP) WWW. See World Wide Web (WWW) Xenon, R38.17 F = 2009 Fundamentals S = 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2007 HVAC Applications R = 2006 Refrigeration ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2011 for the course ASME 293 taught by Professor Range during the Spring '11 term at Prairie View A & M.

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