bruicech1 - Organic Chemistry I Chapter 1: Electronic...

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Organic Chemistry I Lecture Outline Chapter 1: Electronic Structure and Bonding, Acids & Bases/Chapter 7 Bruice, 5th edition I. ORBITALS (Section 1.1, 1.2, 1.5) There are two types of orbitals, atomic and molecular. A. ATOMIC ORBITALS 1. TYPES OF ATOMIC ORBITALS: There are three types of atomic orbitals that play a role in organic chemistry. a. s-orbitals b. p-orbitals c. d-orbitals 2. ATOMIC SHELLS OR LEVELS a. Atomic orbitals occupy "shells" or "levels", each progressively higher in energy and are designated by number b. The outermost shell is referred to as the "valence shell". 3. DETERMINING ELECTRON CONFIGURATION: Electron configuration (or how electrons "fit" into orbitals and shells) is determined using three basic rules. a. Auf Bau Principle b. Pauli Exclusion Principle c. Hund's Rule II. CHEMICAL BONDING A. IONIC BONDS (Section 1.3) A ionic bond forms between an e- donor atom and an e- acceptor atom. B. COVALENT BONDS (Section 1.3) 1. TYPES OF COVALENT BONDS a. SIGMA BONDS i. Sigma bonds are often referred to as "single" bonds. ii. Sigma bonds are stronger than pi bonds. iii. Sigma bonds result from "head-on" overlap of atomic orbitals. iv. The two e- involved in a sigma bond reside between the two atoms involved in bonding. b. PI BONDS a. Pi bonds are often referred to as multiple bonds. b. Pi bonds are weaker than sigma bonds. c. Pi bonds result from "sideways" overlap of atomic orbitals. d. The two e- involved in a pi bond reside above and below the line defining the bond. 2. POLAR AND NON-POLAR COVALENT BONDS a. Polar Covalent Bonds i. A polar covalent bond is one in which the e- are unequally shared between two atoms due to differences in electronegativity of those atoms. The more electronegative element has more e- density than the less electronegative element. b. Non-Polar Covalent Bond i. A non- polar covalent bond is one in which the bonding e- are equally shared between two atoms due to differences in electronegativity of those atoms. C. MOLECULAR STRUCTURE (Section 1.6) 1. Molecular Orbital Theory a. TYPES OF MOLECULAR ORBITALS i. Bonding Molecular Orbitals ii. Anti-Bonding Molecular Orbitals b. Electron Configuration and Lewis Structures in Molecules 2. Valence Bond Theory A covalent bond forms when two atomic orbitals overlap and share e- D. NON-COVALENT INTERACTIONS 1. H-bonding 2. Dipole-Dipole Interactions 3. Ion- Dipole Interactions 4. Hydrophobic Interactions
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Organic Chemistry I Lecture Outline Chapter 1: Electronic Structure and Bonding, Acids & Bases/Chapter 7 Bruice, 5th edition III. HYBRIDIZATION (Sections 1.7-1.14) Hybridization is the mixing together of "atomic orbitals" (i.e., s-, p-, d-) to form new atomic orbitals. These new, hybridized, atomic orbitals can then overlap to form bonds. A.
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bruicech1 - Organic Chemistry I Chapter 1: Electronic...

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