Organic Chemistry I Lecture Outline Chapter 2: An Introduction to Organic Compounds Bruice, 5th editionI. FUNCTIONAL GROUPS: Functional groups with similar structure/reactivity may be "grouped" together. A. Functional Groups With Carbon-Carbon Multiple Bonds 1. Alkenes 2. Alkynes 3. Arenes (Aromatic Compounds) B. Functional Group With Carbon Singly Bonded To An Electronegative Element 1. Alkyl Halides 2. Alcohols 3. Ethers 4. Amines 5. Thiols 6. Sulfides C. Functional Groups With A Carbon-Oxygen Double Bond 1. Aldehydes 2. Ketones 3. Carboxylic Acids 4. Esters 5. Amides 6. Acid Chlorides 7. Anhydrides II. ALKANES(also called aliphatic, saturated hydrocarbons, paraffins) (Section 2.1-2.3)Alkanes are organic compounds that contain only sp3carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms. Alkanes can be classified into three groups. A. STRAIGHT CHAIN OR NORMAL ALKANES 1. The general molecular formula for a straight chain alkane is: CnH2n+2. 2. The lower case letter "n" is written before the molecular formula in a straight chain alkane.B. BRANCHED CHAIN ALKANES: Branched chain alkanes are isomers of straight chain alkanes, i.e., same molecular formula but different chemical structure. C. CYCLOALKANES: Cycloalkanes (alicyclic) alkanes form ring-like structures. III. NOMENCLATURE OF ALKANES (Section 2.2-2.3) A. GENERAL NOMENCLATURE: Organic compounds are named according to IUPAC rules1. PREFIX: Specifies the functional group or substituent position on the parent carbon chain. 2. PARENT: Indicates how many carbon atoms are in the "main" chain of the compound. The main chain is defined as the longest continuous carbon chain. 3. SUFFIX: Identifies the functional group(s) represented in the molecule. B. IUPAC RULES FOR NAMING ALKANES 1. Find the parent hydrocarbon, i.e., the longest continuous carbon chain. Parent name is based on the number of carbon atoms in the chain; use Greek name. 2. Number the carbon atoms in the main chain so that substituents on the main chain have the lowest possible numbers. 3. Identify and number the substituents. 4. Substituents are placed in alphabetical order. 5. The suffix used for alkanes is "ane" 6. Write out the name as a single word with numbered substituents first, using commas to separate numbers and hyphens to separate different prefixes. C. NAMING ALKYL GROUPS (i.e., Alkanes as substituents) 1. A generic name for an alkane that is a substituent on a longer parent chain is called an "alkyl group". Alkyl groups are represented as "R" 2. Alkyl groups are named by replacing the "ane" of the corresponding alkane with a "yl" suffix. 3. There are some common names for alkyl substituents. D. NAMING CYCLOALKANES 1. The prefix "cyclo" is added the parent portion of the alkane name.
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