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8303129-047-Answering-Quest-Transition

8303129-047-Answering-Quest-Transition - Chem Factsheet...

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Answering Questions on Transition Metals C hem F actsheet January 2003 Number 47 1 To succeed in this topic you need to: Understand the principle of oxidation numbers; Understand the principle of redox reactions and the use of E ê values (Factsheets 37 and 45); Understand types of bonding and molecular shapes (Factsheets 04 and 06); Understand work so far on Transition metals (Factsheets 38 and 46). After working through this Factsheet you will: Have more experience of questions based on transition metals; Questions on transition metals are common in exams, as the examiners can use them as a theme to incorperate several different strands of chemistry in one question. To succeed candidates must have a solid understanding of topics such as electronic configuration, molecular shapes, redox reactions, standard electrode potentials, acid-base character and the work covered specifically on transition metals and their compounds and complexes. 1. Learn the definition Ensure that you have learned the definition of transition metals, and that you can explain why scandium and zinc are d-block metals, but not transition metals. Definition - Transition metals are d-block elements, which can form one or more stable ions with partially filled d-orbitals. 2. Learn the properties Properties of transition metals are commonly asked for, so learn: (a) Exist in a variety of oxidation states. (b) Form complex ions. (c) Form coloured ions or compounds. (d) Catalytic properties of elements and compounds. Evidence of understanding may also be required. 3. Electronic configurations You should be able to produce the electron configurations of the first row (period 4) of d-block elements and those of their common ions. Be sure to be confident in using arrows in boxes notation. Example: Complete the electronic structure of the following. When completing these remember that when electrons are removed from atoms (i.e. when forming cations) they are removed from the outermost orbital first. The 4s electrons are removed before the 3d electrons, despite Ni Ni 2+ [Ar] [Ar] 4s 3d Sc 3+ [Ar] the fact that when filling orbitals we fill the 4s before the 3d.
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