8303140-048-Lab-Chemistry-Organic - Chem Factsheet January...

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Laboratory Chemistry - Organic Techniques C hem F actsheet January 2003 Number 48 1 Before working through this Factsheet you should: Have some practical experience in organic chemistry; Undersatnd the Organic Chemistry covered so far at AS and A2 (covered in Factsheets 15, 16, 17, 27, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 and 39); Understand the laboratory techniques for separating and purifying (covered in Factsheet 30). After working through this Factsheet you will: Have met and revised common practical techniques in organic chemistry; Be able to represent the relevant equipment with simple diagrams; Be able to assess simple organic practicals in terms of safety. As several of these techniques were discussed in detail in Factsheet 30, this Factsheet is designed to be more of a focused revision aid. It is necessary for candidates to display a familiarity with a variety of practical techniques in organic chemistry when preparing for both written exams and practical exams or assessment. 1. Heating under reflux Reflux apparatus are necessary when a reactant has a low boiling point, or the reaction is slow at room temperature. The condenser prevents the escape of any of the volatile reagent or product. condenser reaction mixture heat from tap to sink 2. Distillation Distillation can be used to isolate a liquid product if the boiling point of the product is significantly different to that of the rest of the reaction mixture. Distillation is used to purify a liquid by boiling it and then condensing it away from its impurities. 3. Fractional Distillation Fractional distillation is most commonly used to separate two liquids if the boiling points are quite close. Pure samples of each liquid can usually be obtained, unless the boiling points are too close. Thermometer
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8303140-048-Lab-Chemistry-Organic - Chem Factsheet January...

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