thefiles_522251_39340_1263594948 - Chapter 9 and 10 Quiz 1...

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Chapter 9 and 10 Quiz 1. Race and Ethnicity a. Race i. Category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other subjectively selected attributes 1. Native Americans, Mexican Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans b. Ethnicity i. Defines individuals who are believed to share common characteristics that differentiate them from the other collectivities in a society ii. Ethnic Group 1. Collections of people distinguished by other or by themselves, primarily on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics a. Jewish Americans, Irish Americans, Italian Americans 2. Five main characteristics a. Unique cultural traits i. Language, clothing, holidays, or religious practices b. Sense of community c. Feeling of ethnocentrism d. Ascribed membership from birth e. Territoriality i. Little Italy, Little Havana c. Dominant and Subordinate Groups i. Dominant Group 1. One that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights in a society a. Whites with Northern European ancestry (WASPS) ii. Subordinate Group 1. One whose members, because of physical or cultural characteristics, are disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment by the dominant group and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination a. African Americans or other persons of color 2. Prejudice a. Negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of specific racial, ethnic, or other groups i. Latin words 1. Prae (before)
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2. Judicium (judgment) ii. Positive 1. Bias in favor of a group—often our own iii. Negative 1. Bias against a group—one we deem less worthy that our own b. Stereotypes i. Overgeneralizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of members of particular categories c. Racism i. Set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices that is used to justify the superior treatment of one racial or ethnic group and the inferior treatment of another racial or ethnic group d. Frustration-aggression Hypothesis i. States that People who are frustrated in their efforts to achieve a highly desired goal will respond with a pattern of aggression becomes the scapegoat 1. Person or group that is incapable of offering resistance to the hostility or aggression of others a. Used as substitutes for actual source of frustration e. Authoritarian Personality i. Characterized by excessive conformity, submissiveness to authority, intolerance, insecurity, a high level of superstition, and rigid, stereotypic thinking 3. Discrimination a. Involves actions or practices of dominant-group members (or their representatives) that have a harmful impact on members of a subordinate group b. Individual Discrimination i. Consists of one-on-one acts by members of the dominant group that harm members of the subordinate group or their property 1. Not rent an apartment of person of a different race c. Institutional discriminations i. Consists of the day-to-day practices of organizations and institutions that
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thefiles_522251_39340_1263594948 - Chapter 9 and 10 Quiz 1...

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