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05_Maloof_PhylApplications_Outline - phylogeny with...

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BIS2C W2011 Lecture 5 (10 January 2010) 1 Tree applications Today’s lecture using trees to better understand evolution biogeography timing of historical events phylogeny and conservation Wednesday’s lecture Microbes and the tree of life (Dave Rizzo) Uses of phylogenies 1. Mapping traits Distinction between building trees with characters versus mapping traits (characters) on trees Reconstructing character state changes on trees: an example with Linanthus and the evolution of self-compatibility Second example with Giant Tortoises What do we learn from character state reconstruction? 2. Investigating rates of diversification of clades Why do some clades have more species than others? Net rate of diversification: function of speciation and extinction rates Sister-group comparisons : example with latex- and resin-bearing canals in plants. 3. Biogeography: the study of the geographical distribution of organisms. Combining
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Unformatted text preview: phylogeny with knowledge of current (and past) distributions → inferences about where taxa originated and their history of dispersal to other areas. Example: biogeography and evolution of wild horses BIS2C W2011 Lecture 5 (10 January 2010) 2 4. Molecular Clocks to time historical or evolutionary events Concept of molecular clock Chronograms: typically built with DNA data; calibrated with known times from the fossil record Caveats and assumptions Example: when did humans start wearing clothes? 5. Phylogeny and conservation biology Phylogenies can… • make predictions about species that might be invasive pests. • identify previously unsuspected diversity • reveal the major lineages within a larger clade • emphasize the conservation of deeper evolutionary history Phylogenetic patterns in invasive species. Example: Strauss study of invasive grasses in California. Example: cichlid fishes in east Africa...
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05_Maloof_PhylApplications_Outline - phylogeny with...

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