lecture+7+neurons - The Nervous system : Chapter 6 Human...

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1 Human Physiology Lecture 7: Neuronal Signaling The Nervous system : Chapter 6 Structure (neuro-anatmoy, cellular composition) Function (electrophysiology) For Thursday- please read chapter 7 Neural tissue (Ch 6A) The Resting Potential (Ch 6B) Action potentials (Ch 6B) Synapses (Ch 6C) General note about the readings… Control systems in organisms requires fast long-range signaling The two major signaling systems are the nervous and endocrine systems The mechanisms of signaling in the faster of these, the nervous system, is the topic of today’s lecture. THE BIG PICTURE The nervous system regulates most internal functions and organize and control behavior (motor, sensory, learning, memory, emotions, mind,consciousness) Structure of the nervous system… Some neuro-anatomy The two major divisions in the nervous system are the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Within the PNS, major divisions are the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system, which has two branches: the parasympathetic and the sympathetic branches.
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Divisions of the brain On September 13, 1848, Phineas Gage was working blasting rock for a new railroad line outside the town of Cavendish, Vermont. At 4:30 pm, in an accident, gun powder exploded, carrying an instrument through his head an inch and a fourth in circumference and three feet and eight inches in length, which he was using at the time. The iron entered on the side of his face, shattering the upper jaw, and passing back of the left eye, and out the top of his head." Weighing 13-1/2 lb. the rod had been propelled with such force that it landed some 80 feet away. Amazingly, Gage spoke within a few minutes, walked with little or no assistance, and sat upright in a cart for the 3/4- mile ride to town. Except for loss of vision in one eye, some facial paralysis, and severe facial disFgurement, Gage's physical recovery was apparently complete. 6 months later, he returned to work, but his employers refused to return him to his previous position, allegedly because of mental changes. He displayed un- characteristic violent and uncontrolled temperament, and alcohol abuse problem. This suggested a link between the frontal lobes, emotion and practical decision making. Gage's story is seen as the historical beginnings of the study of the biological basis of behavior. Functional neuroanatomy Cerebral cortex = outer shell of cerebrum, and is comprised of the parietal, frontal, occipital, and temporal lobes. Cerebral hemispheres:
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This note was uploaded on 03/09/2011 for the course IB 132 taught by Professor Brooks during the Spring '08 term at Berkeley.

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lecture+7+neurons - The Nervous system : Chapter 6 Human...

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