chem proj 13 final

chem proj 13 final - Project 17 Soaps and Detergents Final...

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Project 17: Soaps and Detergents Final Lab Report Briana Ply Chemistry 102 Laboratory, Section 42 Instructor: Bradley Stadelman February 23, 2010 “My signature indicates that this document represents my own work. Outside of shared data, the information, thoughts and ideas are my own except as indicated in the references. In addition I have not given aid to another student on this assignment.”
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ABSTRACT This paper describes the synthesis and investigation of the properties of several soaps and detergents in order to determine which soap or detergent would be best for the environmental group to use in the future. The goals in this experiment were to make and test soaps and detergents by performing a solubility test with each substance, comparing the desirable properties of the soaps and detergents made, examining the environmental impact of soaps, detergents, and respective wastewater, and determining the cause of the scum after washing and then devising a solution for the problem. For the property test, detergent demonstrated the best lathering ability since it was not too lubricating and produced many bubbles. For the solubility test, detergent was very soluble in water, the soaps were slightly soluble in water, and everything was insoluble in HCl, NaOH, and acetone. As for the pH test, all the substances except the detergent were strong bases (pH of about 12.0-12.4), and the detergent was a strong acid (pH of about 2.5). The wastewaters test showed that olive oil and detergent demonstrated the best cleaning ability since they produced the least scum residue. Vegetable shortening needed the most amount of titrant (about 12 mL of acidic solution added), whereas detergent needed the least amount (only 0.3 mL of basic solution added) to neutralize its pH. For the contaminants test, pond water was found to be very acidic and was titrated with NaOH to get a neutral pH. For the well water, a cation flame test indicated that calcium was present in the water so fluoride was added to form the precipitate calcium fluoride, which was filtered out using vacuum filtration. The lathering abilities in these waters were tested both before the contaminants were removed and after. When the soaps and detergent were mixed with the pond water after the liquid was titrated with NaOH, the mixtures produced many more bubbles than before. The detergent and water solution demonstrated effective cleaning ability by removing an oil stain from a piece of cloth. Detergent was chosen to be the best cleansing agent because this substance was sudsy, slightly lubricating, the most soluble in water, had the best cleaning ability with minimal scum residue, and was able to effectively remove oil stains when combined with water. After performing a variety of tests on each soap and detergent involving its properties, solubility, pH, wastewater, lathering ability and cleaning ability, detergent is the best substance for the environmental group to use for cleaning. INTRODUCTION
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chem proj 13 final - Project 17 Soaps and Detergents Final...

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