Lab #4 info - Laboratory IV Topic Enzyme Physical...

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Laboratory IV Topic : Enzyme Physical Properties Introduction : Enzymes are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions. The enzyme reacts with a substrate to give a product. Some of the enzymatic reactions essential for biological function are hydrolysis and phosphorylation. Enzymes are active over a wide range of conditions, however maximum enzyme activity is observed at its optimal pH, temperature and substrate concentration. The optimal conditions are often related to the type of organism from which the enzyme was isolated. Enzymes isolated from humans are most active at a temperature around 30 to 40°C. Enzymes of thermophilic bacteria are active at high temperatures (greater than 45 ° C). Psychrophilic organisms have enzymes that work efficiently at very low temperatures. The pH of enzyme activity varies with the enzyme. Acid Phosphatase , isolated from the human prostate has a maximum activity in an acidic environment, pH 4.8 at 37 °C, while alkaline phosphatases require an alkaline environment. Enzymes are generally specific for their substrates. Enzyme activity is expressed as units. One unit of enzyme will form a product (mgs or mMols) from its substrate in unit time (minutes) at specified pH and temperature. Example: Both α -amylase and acid phospatase activate hydrolysis. However α - amylase specifically hydrolyzes molecules with α-1,4-glycosidic bonds while acid phosphatase will hydrolyse phosphate bonds. Amylases beaks down starch polymer to smaller maltose units by hydrolyzing the α -1,4 glycosidic bonds with 3 or more glucose units.
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