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Unformatted text preview: 1 1 Lecture 4: Atoms, Molecules, Subatomic Particles square4 Atoms and Molecules: Chapter 4.10 and 4.11 square4 Structure of the Atom and Subatomic Particles: Chapter 5.1 – 5.5 inclusive square4 You are not responsible for the sections on nuclear chemistry and radioactivity Chapter 5.6 to 5.13 inclusive 1 Atoms and Subatomic Particles square4 Element: a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler pure substances square4 Compound: a pure substance that can be broken down to two or more simpler substances square4 Atom: the smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of the element square4 Molecule: a group of two or more atoms that functions as a unit because the atoms are tightly bound together 2 John Dalton 19th century Experimental observations:-most natural materials are mixtures of pure substances-pure substances are either elements or compounds The law of Definite Proportions-a given compound always contains the same proportion, by mass of the elements 3 Dalton’s Atomic Theory (original early 1800’s) (Atomic Theory of Matter) rhombus4 All matter is made up of small, neutral particles called atoms. There are 112 plus, different types of atoms. Each type corresponds to a different element. rhombus4 All atoms of a given element are identical to one another (original version). All atoms of a given element are similar to one another (modern version). rhombus4 Atoms of a given element are different from those of any other element. rhombus4 Atoms of one element combine with atoms of other elements to form compounds. rhombus4 A compound always has the same relative numbers and types of atoms....
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