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BIS2C study guide L1-5

BIS2C study guide L1-5 - Phylogeny What is Phylogeny A...

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Phylogeny - What is Phylogeny? A description of the evolutionary history of relationship among organism or their part. - What is Phylogenetic trees? A diagram that depicts the evolutionary history of population, species and genes. a. (Present) It can reveal surprising relationship yielding new insight into life. b. (future) predict similarities and differences among organisms. - What is Tree of life? The concept that all organisms are related with one another through shared common ancestor. Oversimplifications in a phylogenetic tree - Population generally not shown - Not all branches are always shown, the hidden branches might be extinct species Components of a phylogenetic tree - Internal node: all nodes except the root node - Root node: common ancestor of all taxa, point of the earliest split. - Branch: represent the evolution of taxa over time. - Internal branch: all branches inside the tree except the one link to the taxa. - Terminal branch: branches that closely connect to the taxa directly - Root branch: branch leading up to the root node, the common ancestor of all taxa in the tree. - Taxa any group of species that we designate a name
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- Node: common ancestor of taxa “above” the node. Splits in branches from one lineage into more Different ways of drawing trees - Vertical tree: - - Horizontal tree - - Cladogram: a diagram used in cladistics which shows ancestral relations between organisms to represent the evolutionary tree of life, the length of their branches has no meaning. - Phylogram: An evolutionary tree that the branch lengths are proportional to the amount of “time” separate taxa. - Polytomies: One node that contains multiplied branches which reflect uncertainties about the phylogentic relationship.
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BIS2C study guide L1-5 - Phylogeny What is Phylogeny A...

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