Perception - Perception W illia m J a m e s Whilst part of...

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Perception William James “Whilst part of what we perceive comes through our senses from the object before us, another part (and it may be the larger part) always comes out of our own mind.” Perception is a hard problem Figure-ground segmentation and grouping The inverse problem -- perceiving a 3D world from 2D sensations The Plan… Approaches to perception Psychophysics Subliminal Messages, etc. Gestalt grouping Top down processing The inverse problem Depth perception Motion perception Attention
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5 Approaches to Perception Constructivist Use fragments of sensory info to make inferences Ecological Use information present in environment Computational Determine calculations a computer would have to make Psychophysics Relationship between physical energy & our psychological experience 7 Psychophysics Subliminal Supraliminal Absolute Threshold minimum amount of energy detected 50% of the time Subliminal Stimuli below threshold Supraliminal Stimuli above threshold Psychophysics Sensitivity Ability to pick out signal Influences: intensity, sensory system, & noise Response Criterion Willingness to respond Influences: motivation & expectations
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Hit Signal-Detection Theory Model of how we combine sensitivity & response criterion Hit False Alarm Correct Rejection Miss Present Not Present Respond Don’t Respond Stimulus False Alarm Correct Rejection Miss Snow! No Snow Predict snow Predict no snow Snow storm prediction Signal-Detection Theory Galanter, Eugene. 1962, Contemporary Psychophysics in New Directions in Psychology , New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, p. 97 Coke Hoax Market researcher named James Vicary Inserted frames into movie
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