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Psych Chapter 7 - CHAPTER 7 Memory 00CHAPTER OUTLINE0 I0...

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CHAPTER 7 Memory 00CHAPTER OUTLINE0 I0. THE NATURE OF MEMORY0 A0. Basic Memory Processes0 10. The process of putting information into memory is called encoding . Sensory information is put into memory codes , which are mental representations of physical stimuli.0 a0) Acoustic encoding represents information as sequences of sounds. b0) Visual encoding represents information in the form of a picture. c0) Semantic n encoding represents the general meaning of information. 20. Holding information in memory over time is called storage . 30. Pulling information out of memory and into consciousness after it has been stored is called retrieval . Recall is the term for retrieving information without any cues to help. In recognition , cues aid retrieval. B0. Types of Memory There are at least three basic types of memory, each of which is named for the type of information it handles.0 10. Any memory of a specific event that happened while you were present is an episodic memory . 20. Semantic memory contains generalized knowledge of the world that does not involve memory of a specific event. 30. Procedural memory is memory of how to do things , of how to perform physical tasks. Often, a procedural memory cannot be described easily in words, for example, tying a shoe. C0. Explicit and Implicit Memory Explicit memory n is used when you consciously and deliberately try to remember something. Implicit memory n is the unintentional recognition and influence of prior experiences. Episodic, semantic, and procedural memories can be either explicit or implicit, but procedural memories tend to be implicit. D0. Focus on Research Methods: Measuring Explicit versus Implicit Memory 10. What was the researcher’s question? Is it possible to measure implicit memory? 20. How did the researcher answer the question? To document the difference between explicit and implicit memory, participants studied a word list and were tested on it an hour later and then a week later. For the explicit memory test, participants picked which words on a new list had been on their study list. For the implicit memory test, they were given word fragments (primes) and asked to complete the word. The assumption was that memory from a previous exposure to
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the correct word would iwae2q 1`mprove ability to complete the fragment even if participants were unable to consciously recall having seen the word before. 30. What did the researcher find? Explicit memory decreased between the two tests, but implicit memory hardly changed. 40. What do the results mean? Explicit and implicit memory may operate on different principles, may involve activity in different brain systems, and/or may require different cognitive processes. 50. What do we still need to know? Psychologists would like to know how implicit memory works in the real world. For example, do people have implicit stereotypes in spite of positive explicit thoughts about a group of people? Further research is also needed to determine what mechanisms are responsible for each type of memory and how the two kinds of memories are related to one another.
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