Psych Chapter 13 - CHAPTER 13 Health, Stress, and Coping...

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CHAPTER 13 Health, Stress, and Coping 0CHAPTER OUTLINE0 I0. INTRODUCTION. Twenty-five years ago, AIDS was rare. Now it threatens everyone and is one of the major causes of death in the United States. In some African countries, 20percent of adults are infected.0 A0. One factor that might affect how long AIDS patients live is their expectations about survival. In one study, Geoffrey Reed and associates found that men with HIV who had accepted their situation and prepared for death died an average of nine months earlier than “fighters,” men who did not accept their situation. II0. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY. Health psychology is a field within psychology devoted to understanding psychological influences on how people stay healthy, why they become ill, and how they respond when they do get ill. It is part of the broader field of behavioral medicine . A0. People’s mental state, behavior, and health are linked. Through their impact on psychological and physical processes, the stresses of life can influence physical health. Researchers have associated hostility, depression and other negative states with the appearance of physical illness, and traits such as optimism with good health. Poor health has been linked to lack of exercise, inadequate diet, and drug abuse, while good health has been associated with behaviors such as physical activity and following medical advice.0 10. The leading causes of death until the middle of the 20th century in the U.S. were acute infectious diseases. Now, the leading causes of death are chronic illnesses, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes, which are heavily influenced by psychological, lifestyle, and environmental factors. As many as half of all deaths in the United States are due to potentially preventable health-risky behaviors, yet as few as 3percent follow a healthy lifestyle. III0. STRESS AND STRESSORS. Stress is part of life. Mild stress can be stimulating and motivating, but as it becomes more severe, it brings problems. Stress is the negative emotional, cognitive, behavioral and physiological process that occurs as individuals try to adjust to or deal with stressors . Stressors are circumstances that disrupt, or threaten to disrupt, individuals’ daily functioning and cause people to make adjustments. Stress reactions are the physical, psychological, and behavioral responses that occur in the face of stressors. Stress mediators , such as perceptions of control or threat, social support and coping skills can minimize or magnify a stressor’s impact. A0. Psychological Stressors.0 10. Any event that forces people to accommodate or change can be a psychological stressor. Even very desirable 0 events can be stressors. However, the events and situations most likely to be associated with stress are unpleasant ones.
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a0) Catastrophic events are sudden, unexpected, potentially life-threatening experiences or traumas. This includes physical and sexual assault, military combat, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and accidents. b0)
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This note was uploaded on 03/10/2011 for the course PSYCH 100 taught by Professor Suarez during the Spring '09 term at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign.

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Psych Chapter 13 - CHAPTER 13 Health, Stress, and Coping...

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