Chapter 04 psychology notes

Chapter 04 psychology notes - Chapter 04 - Sensation and...

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Chapter 04 - Sensation and Perception I. Sensation – The Stimulation of Sense Organs. II. Perception – the Selection, Organization, and interpretation of Sensory Input. III. a. Psychophysics - Study of how physical stimuli are translated into Psychological Experience. b. Gustav Fechner i. Psychophysics Psychologists in 1860’s at University of Leipzig. ii. Wilhelm Wundt based lots of research upon Fechner. iii. Question: For any Given Sense, what is the weakest detectable Stimulus? iv. Absolute Threshold – Minimum Stimulus Intensity that an Organism can detect. v. As Stimulus Intensity Increases, the Subject’s probability to responding to Stimuli Gradually increases. vi. The Absolute Threshold is the Stimulus Intensity detected 50% of the time. vii. Just Noticeable Difference (JND) – The smallest difference in stimulus intensity that a specific sense can detect. viii. Weber’s Law – The size of a Just Noticeable Difference is a constant proportion of the size of the initial Stimulus. 1. Weber’s Fraction – The Fractions that apply to different Sensory Inputs until a Difference is noted. Increases constantly proportionately. c. Signal-Detection Theory – The detection of stimuli involves Decision Processes, along as Sensory Processes, which are both influenced by a variety of factors besides Stimulus Intensity. i. Noise – Background distractions that lower the chance of detection of a Stimulus. d. Subliminal Perception – The registration of Sensory Input without conscious awareness. i. Such as Subliminal Messages in movies, advertisements, etc. John Krosnick – Experimented and found that “Subliminal stimulation generally produces weak effects. e. Sensory Adaptation – The Gradual Decline in Sensitivity to prolonged Stimulation. i. Ex. You jump in Cold Water; it is very cold at first,But You Get Used to It . ii. Process that keeps people tuned into the changes rather than constants in Sensory Input. IV. Sight a. The Stimulus: Light
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i. People need Light to See ii. Light – Form of Electromagnetic Radiation that travels as a wave at the Speed of Light. iii. Amplitude – Affects perception of brightness (Height). iv. Wavelength – Affects perception of Color (Distance between Peaks). b. The Eye i. Two Purposes: Channel light to the Neural Tissue that receives it (Retina). And they House the Retina. ii. Lens – Transparent eye Structure that focuses the light rays falling on the Retina. iii. Nearsightedness – Caused by Retina, Close objects are seen clearly, but distant objects appear blurry. iv. Farsightedness – Distant objects are seen clearly, but close objects appear blurry.
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This note was uploaded on 03/10/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 1000 taught by Professor Rebeccajubis during the Spring '11 term at York University.

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Chapter 04 psychology notes - Chapter 04 - Sensation and...

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