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Handout3TA - TA Clarissa Chan Section Wed 12-12:50p Coffee...

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TA: Clarissa Chan OH: Tues 10-11a Section: Wed 12-12:50p Mandeville Coffee Cart Handout #3 (through 1/24) G Proteins (continued) 3 types o Gα Stimulating activates adenyl cyclase which hydrolyzes ATP to ADP + Pi cAMP is generated protein kinase A then phosphorylates proteins activity is either increased or decreased gene expression is altered in the nucleus o Gα Inhibitory inactivates adenyl cyclase cAMP activity is decreased Protein kinase A in inactivated activity is either increased or decreased o Gα Q phospholipase Cβ is activated which cleaves bonds PIP 2 in the phospholipid bilayer is broken down to result in DAG (diacyl glycerol) and IP 3 DAG remains in the membrane because it is a fatty acid. Leads to an increase in protein kinase C which is responsible for phosphorylating membrane proteins IP 3 is a ligand that binds to ion channel receptors in the endoplasmic reticulum resulting in the release of Calcium from intracellular stores. Ultimately results in an increase of muscle contraction and an increase in secretion of Calcium vesicles. An example of a second messenger used in G protein receptor pathways is phosphodiesterases which hydrolyze ester bonds causing cAMP AMP and therefor inactivating Protein Kinase A.
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