MC Test 2 Material

MC Test 2 Material - MCTest2Material 18:31 Reasoning...

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MC Test 2 Material 18:31 Reasoning Pathos, logos, ethos Logos: Reasoning Process A rational or systematic link b/w the evidence and the conclusion, or belief How you develop arguments 2 components of Arguments o claim: a statement that communicates a persuader’s message to audience sometimes states, sometimes implied, sometimes assumed  o data: the basis from which persuader makes claims testimony sales data, lots of ppl who buy it Toulmin’s Model Claim Data o Premises o Evidence Examples Stats Testimony Warrant
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o Inductive or deductive reasoning valid argument, even if it is valid, it may not be true (premises are just  wrong) Inductive Reasoning Draws conclusions from particular events, ideas, or objects o Type of reasoning we see in scientific investigation Inductive Argument by Example I have a dog that likes to chase sticks, my friend’s dog likes to change sticks,  I’ve seen lost of dogs at the park chase sticks.  All dogs like to chase sticks . o Are examples typical? o Are contradictory instances considered? o Have sufficient number of examples been considered? Have to ask these questions Induction: Argument by casual relationship Very typical in medical and other scientific research. People who smoke are  more likely to develop lung cancer. Smoking causes lung cancer. o Is there a consistence association b/w cause and effect? o Is the association strong? o Have to think about the directionality of the situation, so that you can  be sure that what you’re saying the relationship is, is the actual  relationship Induction: Argument by analogy cultural values and beliefs. Canada has greater restrictions on firearms and  has lower instances of firearm related deaths. US should adopt greater gun  control o Are the 2 cases essentially alike? o Are the characteristics that are compared accurate?
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This can often take the form of a testimony o If the answer is not the analogy begins to break down Deductive Reasoning Starts with premises that lead to certain conclusions More pure logic Form of logical argumentation o If a, then b o A o Therefore b Evaluating the quality of the argument, does it mathematically make sense? o
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MC Test 2 Material - MCTest2Material 18:31 Reasoning...

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