Chapter 02 - Lecture Outline Chapter. 2. Campbell et. al....

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Lecture Outline Chapter. 2. Campbell et. al. Introduction Nature’s Chemical Language A. Chemicals play an important role in all organisms, whether controlling the function of the body, enticing a mate to reproduce, or scaring away a potential predator. B. Much has been learned about the role of these chemicals and how they control body function, behavior, ecosystems, and the process of evolution. C. This unit starts with atoms and goes up through the levels of the cell, explaining the basic chemical reactions of importance. The first chapter focuses on atoms and molecules of the cell. I . Elements, Atoms, and Molecules Module 2.1 Living organisms are composed of about 25 chemical elements. A. Use of a holistic approach or reductionism requires understanding two basic principles: The preceding level builds upon each successive level of a hierarchy, and with each move upward new properties emerge that were not evident at the lower level. Review: This hierarchical organization is first discussed in Module 1.1. B. Elements are the basic chemical units that cannot be broken apart by typical chemical processes. C. There are 92 naturally occurring elements. Be sure to mention that “atom” is the name for an elemental unit. D. Approximately 25 elements are required by living organisms. Four (oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen) are particularly abundant, making up 96.3% of the human body. Module 2.2 Trace elements are common additives to food and water. A. Trace elements are important for proper function, particularly as catalysts and enzyme cofactors. B. An example given in the text refers to the importance of the element iodine. Discuss the amount needed each day (0.15 mg) compared to the recommended calcium intake each day (1,000 mg). Also discuss the disease related to iodine deficiencies. Module 2.3 Elements can combine to form compounds. A. Compounds contain two or more atoms in a fixed ratio. B. Different combinations of atoms determine the unique properties of each compound.
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NOTE: At this point in your discussion, it might be useful to explain that our knowledge about chemistry is the result of several hundred years’ worth of direct and indirect observations of the behavior of matter. Also explain that conventions used to show atoms and molecules convey various types of information. They don’t show atoms and molecules the way they really are. Module 2.4 Atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons. A. Protons and neutrons occupy the central region of an atom (the atomic nucleus), and electrons occupy the region surrounding this central area. B. Neutrons have a mass of 1 and a charge of 0; protons have a mass of 1 and a charge of 11; electrons have an effective mass of 0 (1/2,000 of a proton) and a charge of 21.
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This note was uploaded on 03/10/2011 for the course BIOL 10 taught by Professor Kite during the Spring '11 term at Laney College.

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Chapter 02 - Lecture Outline Chapter. 2. Campbell et. al....

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