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Chapter 03 - Chapter 3 Lecture Outline Introduction Got...

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Chapter 3 Lecture Outline Introduction Got Lactose? A. The central topic of this chapter is how smaller molecular units are assembled into larger ones. B. There are four large molecules discussed in this chapter: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. C. Failure to make the correct molecules can lead to abnormalities at the cellular, tissue, organ, or organismal level as illustrated in the essay on lactose intolerance. I. Introduction to Organic Compounds Module 3.1 Life’s molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon. A. Organic compounds contain at least one carbon atom (Figure 3.1). B. Carbon has 4 electrons in the outer shell; therefore carbon has a strong tendency to fill the shell to 8 by forming covalent bonds with other atoms, particularly hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. The 4 electrons in the outermost shell of carbon allow it to form complex structures (e.g., long, branched chains, ring structures). This is a major reason carbon is the structural backbone of organic compounds. A compound composed only of carbon and hydrogen is called a hydrocarbon, which is generally nonpolar. A series of covalently attached carbons in a molecule form the backbone, or carbon skeleton. C. Instead of a single covalent bond, carbon can have double bonds represented as double lines. Nitrogen can have triple bonds represented as three lines. D. The way bonding occurs among atoms in molecules determines the overall shape of the molecule. E. Isomers are molecules with the same numbers of each atom but with different structural arrangements of the atoms. Module 3.2 Functional groups help determine the properties of organic compounds. A. Functional groups are generally attached to or part of the carbon skeleton of different molecules and exhibit predictable chemical properties. B. Functional groups are the atoms of an organic compound directly participating in chemical reactions. The sex hormones testosterone and estradiol illustrate the power of functional groups (Figure 3.2). C. Figure 3.2 illustrates five functional groups important to life, discussing a few of the examples. D. All of these functional groups have polar characteristics. Therefore, most of the molecules on which they are found are polar molecules. Module 3.3 Cells make a huge number of large molecules from a small set of small molecules.
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A. Monomers are the fundamental molecular unit. Polymers are macromolecules made by linking many of the same kind of fundamental units. B. Types of reactions (note that water is involved in both; Figure 3.3A, B): dehydration reaction—molecules synthesized by loss of a water molecule between reacting monomers, the most common way organic polymers are synthesized; hydrolysis— literally, “breaking apart with water”—the most common way organic polymers are degraded.
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