Chapter 06 - Introduction A Review The definition of metabolism and what it entails(Chapter 5 B Harvesting chemical energy from food molecules is

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Chapter 6 Lecture Outline Introduction How Is a Marathoner Different from a Sprinter? A. Review: The definition of metabolism and what it entails (Chapter 5). B. Harvesting chemical energy from food molecules is one side of a cycle that, in eukaryotes, often involves mitochondria and chloroplasts (Module 5.21). C. Muscles in our legs are of two types: slow-twitch and fast-twitch. The difference between the muscle types is determined by the type of work they do and the type of metabolic processes they perform. Sprinters have proportionally more fast-twitch muscle, while distance runners have a larger portion of slow-twitch muscle. D. Slow-twitch muscles metabolize glucose in the presence of O 2 (aerobic respiration), producing large amounts of ATP, and can, therefore, work for a long period of time. Fast-twitch muscles metabolize glucose in the absence of O 2 (anaerobic), producing very little ATP, and, therefore, can work for only a short amount of time, albeit furiously. E. This chapter covers the various metabolic pathways by which energy is released from food molecules, particularly glucose, in the presence (cellular respiration) and absence of oxygen. I. Introduction to Cellular Respiration Module 6.1 Photosynthesis and respiration provide energy for life. A. All living organisms require energy to maintain homeostasis, to move and reproduce. The ultimate source of energy is the sun. B. Plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria and protists perform photosynthesis (the conversion of CO 2 and H 2 O into O 2 and glucose). Stored energy from glucose can be released and transferred to ATP. C. Molecules are cycled through an ecosystem, but the flow of energy is one-way (Figure 6.1). Module 6.2 Breathing supplies oxygen to our cells and removes carbon dioxide. A. The oxygen needed to burn food by the process of cellular respiration is outside the bodies of organisms and is obtained by breathing (respiration). B. ATP is needed by cells to perform work. C. Mitochondria use O 2 in the process of cellular respiration. D. The muscular, respiratory, and circulatory systems combine forces to bring reactants (food molecules and O 2 ) to cells and remove waste products (CO 2 and H 2 O) from cells in an effort to make ATP (Figure 6.2). Module 6.3  Cellular respiration banks energy in ATP molecules. A. Overall equation:
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C 6 H 12 O 6 1 6 O 2 Æ 6 CO 2 1 6 H 2 O 1 energy in the form of ATP and heat (Figure 6.3). B. Review: The second law of thermodynamics. Remind students that the wasted energy is lost to each system as random kinetic energy (heat). C. Compare the efficiency of the overall process in cells (about 40%) to the efficiency of energy use by an automobile (about 25%). Module 6.4
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This note was uploaded on 03/10/2011 for the course BIOL 10 taught by Professor Kite during the Spring '11 term at Laney College.

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Chapter 06 - Introduction A Review The definition of metabolism and what it entails(Chapter 5 B Harvesting chemical energy from food molecules is

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