Chapter 07 - Introduction PlantPower A As the world...

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Chapter 7 Lecture Outline Introduction Plant Power A. As the world population continues to increase and the demand for energy grows, more fossil fuel will be burned. Burning fossil fuel increases the greenhouse gases that are polluting the atmosphere. B. Review the overall equation for photosynthesis, and note that it is the reverse of cellular respiration (figure at top of left page). 6CO 2 1 6H 2 O æÆ Light C 6 H 12 O 6 1 6O 2 C. Growing willow trees as a source of renewable energy is currently an area of research into alternative fuels. Willow trees grow fast; are capable of sprouting, which reduces the need to replant; and generate more BTUs than other types of wood. I. An Overview of Photosynthesis Module 7.1 Autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere. A. Autotroph means “self-feeder,” and the term is applied to any organism that makes its own food without eating, decomposing, or absorbing other organisms or organic molecules. B. Autotrophs produce the biosphere’s food supply (Module 37.11). C. Producers include plants, algae, some prokaryotes, and certain protists (Figures 7.1A–D). Producers that use light energy are referred to as photoautotrophs. NOTE: We will return to the term producer in our discussion of community ecology and the flow of energy among different kinds of organisms (Chapter 36). Module 7.2 Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts. Review: Figures 4.4B and 4.14 for plant cell and chloroplast structure. A. This is true for all photosynthetic organisms except prokaryotes, and it is true for all green parts of plants. NOTE: It is also true for the not-quite-so-green parts of other photosynthetic eukaryotes. B. In most plants, the leaves and, specifically, mesophyll cells are the dominant photosynthetic locations (Figure 7.2). C. Other structures in leaves provide entries and exits for the reactants and products of the process: CO 2 and O 2 diffuse through stomata; H 2 O moves through veins from the roots. D. Within the stroma of chloroplasts, carbon dioxide is built up into sugars. E. The green pigment that absorbs light energy is chlorophyll, which is located in thylakoid  membranes (stacks of thylakoids are called grana ) within the chloroplasts.
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NOTE: Ask students to note the parallels between photosynthesis and cellular respiration, particularly in the types of underlying processes and the locations in which these processes occur, but be careful not to confuse the two sequences. Module 7.3 Plants produce O 2 gas by splitting water. A. Experiments in the 1950s tested the early hypothesis of Ingenhousz that the oxygen given off in photosynthesis came from the reactant CO 2 (Figure 7.3A). Two experiments used 18 O-labeled reactants as tracers (see Modules 2.4 and 2.5; Figure 7.3B). NOTE:
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Chapter 07 - Introduction PlantPower A As the world...

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