Chapter 12 - Introduction A DNA fingerprinting can...

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Chapter 12 Lecture Outline Introduction DNA and Crime Scene Investigations A. DNA fingerprinting can distinguish one person’s DNA from any other (except twins) and is a forensic technique used to solve crimes. B. The first case to use DNA fingerprinting technology was a double murder in England back in 1983 and 1986. Alec Jeffreys of Leicester University developed the first DNA fingerprinting identification system and was asked by police to assist in solving the crime. C. Since that first crime was solved, the use of DNA technology has revolutionized the field of forensics, the science of legal investigation. Other areas of science have also benefited including genomics, agriculture, and even history. Of particular interest is the Human Genome Project whose goal is the map of the entire human genome. I. Bacterial Plasmids and Gene Cloning Module 12.1 Plasmids are used to customize bacteria: An overview. A. Figure 12.1 presents a simplified version of how one can use recombinant DNA technology  (combing genes from different sources) to replicate a gene. B. Plasmids are small, circular, self-replicating pieces of DNA isolated from a bacterium. A gene can be inserted into a plasmid then added to a bacterium for replication, a process called gene  cloning. C. The five steps for gene cloning are as follows: 1. Isolate plasmid from bacterium. 2. Isolate gene of interest from another cell. 3. Insert gene of interest into plasmid (now called a recombinant DNA ). 4. Bacterial cell takes up plasmid containing gene of interest through a process called transformation (see Module 10.22). 5. Bacterial cell divides along with the plasmid and forms a clone of cells (genetically identical cells). D. The bacteria are grown in culture to produce many copies of the isolated gene of interest (the gene is cloned) or its protein product. E. Genetic engineering (the direct manipulation of genes) uses the cloning technique described above for practical purposes. F. Genetic engineering has promoted the development of an industry called biotechnology, which manipulates organisms or their components to make products for human use. Examples of such products are human insulin and human growth hormone. Module 12.2 Enzymes are used to “cut and paste” DNA. A. Restriction enzymes were first discovered in bacteria in the late 1960s.
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B. In nature, bacteria use restriction enzymes to cut up intruder DNA from phages and from other organisms into nonfunctional pieces. The bacteria first chemically modify their own DNA so it will not be cut. C. Several hundred restriction enzymes and about 100 recognition sequences have been discovered. D. DNA from two sources is cut by the same restriction enzyme. These enzymes are cut at a specific restriction-enzyme recognition sequence called a restriction site (usually a palindrome). The result is a
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This note was uploaded on 03/10/2011 for the course BIOL 10 taught by Professor Kite during the Spring '11 term at Laney College.

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Chapter 12 - Introduction A DNA fingerprinting can...

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