Chapter 17 - Chapter17LectureOutline Introduction...

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Chapter 17 Lecture Outline Introduction A Gentle Giant A. Plants are unique organisms. Review: Basic characteristics of the plant kingdom (Module 17.1). 1. Examining the giant sequoia, Sequoiadendron gigantea, helps underscore the unique capabilities and adaptations of plants. The tree known as General Sherman is the largest individual plant on Earth: 84 m tall, 10 m in diameter at the base, first branch at 40 m, weighing about 1,400 tons, and alive for about 2,500 years (chapter-opening photos). 2. Humans depend on plants for a variety of needs (e.g., lumber, fabric, paper, and food), and many other organisms depend on them for nutrition and shelter. NOTE: Despite the importance of plants, on a worldwide basis, slightly more photosynthesis is carried out by photosynthetic protists (algae) and bacteria of aquatic habitats. 3. Giant sequoias are gymnosperms (naked seeds; Modules 17.7 and 17.8). Because angiosperms (covered seeds; Modules 17.9–17.13) make up 90% of the world’s plant species, they are the focus of this chapter. Review: Module 17.3 discusses the basic differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms. Module 31.1 Talking About Science: Plant scientist Natasha Raikhel studies the Arabidopsis plant as a model biological system. A. Dr. Natasha Raikhel is the Distinguished Professor of Plant Cell Biology at the University of California, Riverside. She recently received an award from the American Society of Cell Biology for her work on the mustard seed plant, Arabidopsis (Figure 31.1B). B. Raikhel uses the mustard seed plant to study biological systems and the structure-function relationship in plants. Raikhel is a leader in the field of plant cell biology, and she also loves to share her enthusiasm for plants with her students (Figure 31.1A). I. Plant Structure and Function Module 31.2 The two major groups of angiosperms are the monocots and the dicots. A. Monocots include orchids, bamboos, palms, lilies, and grasses (including most of the agricultural, grain-producing plants). They are distinguished by having one seed leaf (cotyledon) but also usually have parallel-veined leaves, scattered vascular bundles in stems, floral parts in multiples of three, and fibrous root systems (Figure 31.2). B. Most angiosperms are dicots. Dicots include most shrubs and trees (except conifers) and many herbaceous plants, including many food plants and plants domesticated for their fibers. They are distinguished by having two cotyledons but also usually have net-veined leaves, vascular bundles in a ring in stems, floral parts in multiples of four or five, and taproot systems.
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C. Careful analysis of plant structure often reveals its function. Conversely, function provides insight into the logic of a plant’s structure. Module 31.3
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This note was uploaded on 03/10/2011 for the course BIOL 10 taught by Professor Kite during the Spring '11 term at Laney College.

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Chapter 17 - Chapter17LectureOutline Introduction...

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