chapter 33 edited

chapter 33 edited - Structural Support and Movement Chapter...

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Structural Support and Movement Chapter 33
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33.1 Skeletons and Muscles Most animals move when the force of muscle contraction is applied to skeletal elements
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Animal Skeletons Hydrostatic skeleton A confined fluid accepts the force of muscle contraction Exoskeleton Consists of hardened parts at the body surface Endoskeleton Consists of hardened parts inside the body
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Invertebrate Skeletons
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Vertebrate Endoskeletons Skull bones, vertebral column, rib cage Pelvic girdle, pectoral girdle, and paired limbs
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Adaptations of Vertebrate Skeletons Modifications to fins and other skeletal structures accompanied the move from water to land Fins evolved into limbs, pectoral and pelvic girdles got stronger, and a breastbone helped form the rib cage Evolution of an upright posture in human ancestors involved skeletal modifications
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Human Skeletal Structure
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Key Concepts: SKELETAL SYSTEMS Contractile force exerted against some type of skeleton moves the animal body Many invertebrates have a hydrostatic skeleton, which is a fluid-filled body cavity Others have an exoskeleton of hardened structures at the body surface Vertebrates have an endoskeleton, an internal skeleton of cartilage, bone, or both
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33.2 Bone Structure Bone matrix Collagen fibers and mineral salts Bone cells Osteoblasts , osteocytes , and osteoclasts Compact bone and spongy bone Red marrow and yellow marrow
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Bone Structure
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chapter 33 edited - Structural Support and Movement Chapter...

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