chapter 34 edited

chapter 34 edited - Circulation Chapter 34 34.1 Circulatory...

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Circulation Chapter 34
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34.1 Circulatory Systems Circulatory system Usually blood , blood vessels , and heart Moves substances to and from interstitial fluid faster than diffusion could move them Interstitial fluid fills spaces between cells Exchanges substances with cells and blood Usually across blood capillaries
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Open Circulatory System Found in some invertebrates Blood mingles with tissue fluids
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Closed Circulatory System Found in vertebrates and some invertebrates Confines blood inside a heart and blood vessels
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Vertebrate Circulatory Systems Closed systems differ in whether blood flows through one or two circuits of blood vessels and how many chambers divide the heart’s interior Birds and mammals have hearts with four chambers and two separate circuits Pulmonary circuit Systemic circuit
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Vertebrate Circulatory Systems
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Key Concepts: OVERVIEW OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS Many animals have either an open or a closed circulatory system that transports substances to and from all body tissues
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34.2 Blood Blood Fluid connective tissue consisting of plasma , blood cells , and platelets Plasma Mostly water in which diverse ions and molecules are dissolved
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Blood Cells Red blood cells (erythrocytes) Contain hemoglobin Rapidly transport oxygen (and carbon dioxide) Have no nucleus when mature White blood cells (leukocytes) Tissue maintenance and repair Defenses against pathogens
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Platelets Platelets function in blood clotting Platelets and all blood cells arise from stem cells in bone marrow
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Components of Human Blood
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Cellular Components of Human Blood
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34.3 Blood Disorders Red blood cell disorders Anemias, polycythemia White blood cell disorders Mononucleosis, leukemias
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34.4 Blood Typing Recognition proteins (self markers) on red blood cell surfaces identify an individual’s blood types The body attacks cells that bear nonself markers
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ABO Blood Typing Helps match blood of donors and recipients to avoid blood transfusion problems ( agglutination )
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Rh Blood Typing Helps prevent problems that may arise when maternal and fetal Rh blood types differ
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chapter 34 edited - Circulation Chapter 34 34.1 Circulatory...

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