chapter 38 edited

chapter 38 edited - The Internal Environment Chapter 38...

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The Internal Environment Chapter 38
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Body Fluids
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38.1 Water and Solutes Extracellular fluid ( ECF ) Plasma and interstitial fluid Homeostasis Maintains ECF volume and composition All organisms balance solute and fluid gains with solute and fluid losses
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Fluid Distribution in the Human Body
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The Urinary System Balances solute and fluid levels Kidneys filter blood Excess water and solutes collect in urine
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Aquatic Vertebrates Fish lose or gain water by osmosis
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Land Vertebrates Birds and reptiles conserve water by eliminating nitrogen-rich wastes as uric acid crystals Mammals excrete urea , which must be dissolved in a lot of water
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38.2 Desert Adaptations Kangaroo rat
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Key Concepts: MAINTAINING EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Animals continually produce metabolic wastes They continually gain and lose water and solutes; yet the overall composition and volume of extracellular fluid must be kept within a range that individual cells can tolerate In humans and other vertebrates, urinary system interacts with other organ systems in this task
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38.3 The Human Urinary System Consists of a pair of kidneys , a pair of ureters , a urinary bladder , and a urethra Nephrons are functional units of the kidney Small, tubular structures in kidneys Interact with capillaries to clean blood and form urine
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The Human Urinary System
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Nephron Structure Bowman’s capsule in the renal cortex filters
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chapter 38 edited - The Internal Environment Chapter 38...

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