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The Chemistry of Nutrition

The Chemistry of Nutrition - Oleic acid Elaidic acid The...

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Unformatted text preview: Oleic acid Elaidic acid The Chemistry of Nutrition Digestion Digestion: we use the macronutrients as a source of building blocks to make our own molecules proteases protein amino acids amylases starch sugars lipases fats glycerol + fatty acids Proteins: chain of amino acids • very versatile • principal source of nitrogen o only plants can assimilate N2 o nitrogen balancebody does not store protein-if it’s not used, its excreted as urea 11 ! growing children and pregnant womenpositive nitrogen balance starvationnegative nitrogen balance • makes up: hair, skin, muscle, transport oxygen, nutrients, and minerals, enzymes, hormones Essential Amino Acids • proteins are composed of 20 different acids • but of those 20, 11 can be synthesized in our body, the other 9 must be ingested • 9 essential: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methylamine, phenylalanline, threonine, tryptophan, valine • vegetarians must be careful because certain foods lack the essential amino acids • carnivores don’t need to worry • however, producing beef is costly to the environment Nutrasweet (Aspartame) Aspartic acid Interesting dipeptide P Nutrasweet (Aspartame) henylalanine Phenylpyruvic acid Enzyme Tyrosine - causes severe mental retardation - newborn babies are tested for phenylpyruvic acid in urine Symptoms in children: seizures, nausea, vomiting, self-injurious behavior, hyperactivity In pregnant women: effects on fetus. Microcephaly, heart disease. Aspartic acid Phenylalanine Phenylpyruvic acid Enzyme Tyrosine - causes severe mental retardation - newborn babies are tested for phenylpyruvic acid in urine Symptoms in children: seizures, liminate the intake of phenylalanline (i.e. eat Treatment: reduce but not enausea, vomiting, self-injurious behavior, hyperactivity less milk and meats); n tIhepregnant women: effects on reduce intake is because phenylalanline is an essential amino acid reason why they must fetus. Microcephaly, heart disease. Energy Photosynthesis: 6 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (l) Metabolism: C6H12O6 (s) + 6 O2 (g) Sunlight chlorophyll C6H12O6 (s) + 6 O2 (g) 6 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (l) + ENERGY Used for: - muscular motion - run chemical reactions - produce ion gradient In the body occurs in small steps involving enzymes, enzyme regulators and hormones Sunlight Carbohydrates Kcal/gram Photosynthesis:~64CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (l) C6H12O6 (s) + 6 O2 (g) 1 Kcal chlorophyll = 1 Cal = 1000 cal Fats ~ 9 Kcal/gram Each heartbeat uses 4 cal of energy Metabolism: C6H12O6 (s) + 6 O2 (g) 6 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (l) In the body occurs How much energy is needed? Diependssteps- exercise + Eactivity or NERGY n small on: - health Used for: involving enzymes, Children need a proportionally largernzyme regulators e - sex - muscular motion energy intake. More susceptible to and hormones age - run chemical reactions undernourishment and malnutrition. - body sizeproduce ion gradient - etc. Carbohydrates ~ 4 Kcal/gram 1 *note: the photosynthesis processKcal = 1000 cal = 1as the metabolism process is the opposite Cal Fats ~ 9 Kcal/gram Each heartbeat uses 4 cal of energy Energy Basal Metabolism Rate (BMR) - health C minimm amount of energy s support basic body functions (heartbeat, inhaling, • hildren need a proportionally larger required -toex energy intake. More susceptible to - age organs, body temperature) (~1cal/kg hr) exhaling, brain activity, function of major undernourishment and malnutrition. - body size 13 ! • Daily BMR=1cal/kg hour * (weight-kg) *24 hr/day - etc. • Note: your intake is going to be more than the BMR because of other activities your partake in Vitamins (micronutrients) • Essential to your diet • Required to be taken in small amounts How much energy is needed? Depends on: - exercise or activity 13 ! • • • Organic molecules Wide range of physiological functions Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) Required for the activity of more than 100 different enzymes (coenzyme) involved in metabolismVitamin B6 (pyridoxine) of Required for the activity of more than 100 diffe carbohydrates, proteins, and fat. enzymes (coenzyme) involved in metabolism Critical in the formation of hemoglobin. carbohydrates, proteins, and fat. Needed for the synthesis of neurotransmitters. Critical in the formation of hemoglobin. Needed for the synthesis of neurotransmitters Classifications of vitamins o Fat soluable-hydrophobic (dissolved with fats) A, D, R, K Composed of hyrdogens and carbons Too much fatVitamins bad because it can end up in the cell membrane soluable is (toxic) Vitamins o Water soluable Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Wide variety of functions. All the rest Vitamin C (ascorbi Reducing Composed of oxygen, hyrdogen, and carbons agent (donates electrons in reactions). variety of fun Wide Important in the formation of collagen. Body can’t store water soluables Hydroxyproline, an amino acid, is a major component of collagen, the Reducing agent (d and tendons provides Important in the fo o Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)-Water soluable protein that strengthens ligaments proline, whichandconverts toskin elasticity. The human body makes it Hydroxyproline, an amino hydroxyproline, but it requires vitamin C to complete the process. A lack Reducing acent (donates electrons in reactions) diet can cause hydroxyproline deficiency, producing strengthens li protein that of vitamin C in the elasticity. The human bod the skin lesions typical of the disease scurvy. Formation of collagen hydroxyproline, but it requ of vitamin C in the diet ca the skin lesions typical of o Vitamin D (calciferol) Vitamin D (calciferol) Regulates blood egulates blood calcium. R calcium Vitamin D (calciferol) Cell and function Cell differentiationdifferentiation and function. Regulates blood calcium. Minerals: in the form of ions and other inorganic compounds Cell differentiation and function. • Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body o Because our bones and teeth are made up of them Bones-made up of calcium phosphate o Also helps with blood clotting, muscle contraction, transmission of nerve impulses • Sodium, Potasium o Muscle contraction and beating of the heart • Iron o Hemoglobin Transports oxygen in blood Large molecules made up of 4 subunits Each subunit consists of a heme group (with 1 Iron atom each) ...
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