Jazz_PPT_ch12 (1) - Jazz Scott DeVeaux & Gary Giddins...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Jazz Lecture Outlines and Art Chapter 12 The 1950s: Cool Jazz and Hard Bop © 2009 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
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Photo 12-1 © 2009 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
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New Schools § Bebop was a style that many who had grown up with swing could not accept. When bebop did not fade, many of these same people lost interest in jazz. At the same time, some of the younger swing musicians adapted to the new music. § Even though bop was an introverted, intellectual music, bebop musicians were interested in pleasing their audience: Dizzy Gillespie was a showman; Charlie Parker recorded with strings. In the 1950s new schools of jazz appeared including cool, hard bop, funk, and avant-garde.
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New Schools (cont’d) § Bop was not the first style to cause a schism in the jazz world: conservatives accused Armstrong and Ellington of sacrificing “authenticity” during the 1920s (Armstrong for recording popular songs and Ellington for writing arrangements). Swing fans shunned bop; bop fans shunned avant-garde jazz. § The word jazz achieved its present-day meaning after bebop with the appearance of various schools of jazz. A unifying umbrella term was required.
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New Schools (cont’d) § Interpretations of History Although jazz was recognized as art music from the beginning (e.g., Ansermet on Bechet), jazz-as-art reemerged after bebop, as the association of jazz with dance and entertainment diminished. Jazz musicians sought the status of serious artists by playing major concert halls, collaborating with classical music ensembles, and composing ballet and theatrical scores. They expanded forms of improvisation and composition. By doing this, they ceded dance and entertainment to pop music. Interpretations of this development vary: § Modernism sees bop and its successors as part of an inevitable evolution from simplicity to complexity. § Fusion advocates see the severance of jazz and pop music as an error. Jazz should take its cue from its audience, not its critics.
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New Schools (cont’d) § Interpretations of History (cont’d) […] Interpretations of this development vary: (cont’d) § The ethnic interpretation claims that jazz should take its inspiration from African American elements and shun other practices such as experimentation and borrowing from other styles. § The cyclical view sees jazz history as a series of cycles of innovation and elaboration: 1920s jazz is innovative, 1930s saw these innovations become more generally accessible through swing; 1940s bebop is innovative, 1950s jazz was made more accessible; 1960s avant-garde jazz was assimilated during the 1970s. During a post-cyclic period, all styles compete with the classical past.
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Cool Jazz § By the early 1950s, cool was used to describe a kind of toned-down jazz. Later the term became associated with a number of white musicians who relocated to California where they could get day gigs at movie studios (unlike African Americans) while playing jazz at night. In this form
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This note was uploaded on 03/11/2011 for the course MUSIC 3UU3 taught by Professor Gerry during the Spring '11 term at McMaster University.

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Jazz_PPT_ch12 (1) - Jazz Scott DeVeaux & Gary Giddins...

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