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Examples of the Mechanisms of Evolution in Humans Mutation:1. Faster rates of mutation in males for some X-linked diseases (hemophilia, Lesch–Nyhan syndrome): see Crow 1997 (focus on “Mutation Rates in Males and Females”2. Higher mutation rate in humans compared to many other species with larger effective population size: see “Human mutation rate a legacy from our past”Gene Flow: 1. Globalization and its influence on changing phenotypes: see “The Changing Face of America”2. Introgression of Neanderthal genes into the human genome: see “Neanderthal genome shows evidence of early human interbreeding, inbreeding” Genetic Drift:1. Founder Effect of the Afrikaner population of South Africa being decedents from a small group of Dutch colonists and have a high incidence of Huntington’s Disease: see “Founder Effect”2. High incidence of Ellis–van Creveld syndrome in Pennsylvania Amish due to founder effect and small population size: see McKusick 2000 oWhat is Ellis-van Creveld syndrome? 3. High incidence of Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) in Finnish peoples due to small population and regional isolation: see Mäkitie 1992 4. Higher incidence of Tay-Sachs disease among small isolated populations including Ashkenazi Jews, French Canadians of southeastern Quebec, and Old Order Amish of Pennsylvania: see Zlotogora 1994 5. Habsburg jaw in the German-Austrian ruling family due inbreeding (small population): see “The Distinctive ‘Habsburg Jaw’ Was Likely the Result of the Royal Family’s Inbreeding”Natural Selection:1. Recessive diseases (aka “dominant phenotype advantage”)oCystic fibrosis oTay-Sachs disease oPhenylketonuria (PKU) 2. Dominant diseases (aka “recessive phenotype advantage”)oMarfan syndrome oHuntington’s diseaseoPolycystic kidney disease Can also be a recessive disease but its incidence is more rare