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Final Study Guide - N ut r i tion F inal Study Guide Module...

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Nutrition Final Study Guide Module 6: Essential Amino Acids: 20 total, 9 are essential- histidine, phenylalanine, leucine, isolecuine, valine, lysine, methionine, tryptophan, and threonine (this is the only one that is essential and we can’t make it at all) Where Protein Digestion Happens: food protein is digested to its individual amino acids in the stomach and small intestine. In the stomach: protein is further denatured by the strong HCL (acid) in the gastric juice, leaving just the polypeptide chain. The stomach releases an enzyme, pepsin, which begins to hydrolyze or break specific spots on the chain, cutting it into smaller units called peptides. In the small intestine: peptides leave the stomach and enter the small intestine where they meet a variety of digestive enzymes (peptidases) from the pancreas. Enzymes continue to cut peptides into smaller fragments like tripeptides, dipeptides, and finally free amino acids. Limiting Amino Acids: the amino acid in shortest supply with respect to needs. When an amino acid is missing, it limits the amount of protein that can be synthesized. Kwashiorkor: caused by insufficient intake of good-quality protein. It occurs primarily among 2-5 year old children when they wear from the mother and consume a cereal-based diet. In order to conserve protein, the body sacrifices less important proteins such as the protein that colors the hair, in order to make more important proteins such as digestive enzymes. Not having this hair coloring results in a “flag sign” or odd stripes in the hair. Peptide Bond: chemical bond adjoining amino acids that hold protein together Amino Acids that Make Up Proteins: amino acids are the building blocks of protein, protein makes sup our entire body, we are living protein.
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Complementary Proteins: combining two “incomplete” protein foods into one dish, a complete protein is achieved. Also referred to as mutual supplementation. Edema: swollen look in stomach due to lack of protein available to hold fluid in the blood vessels and the fluid end up in the extra vascular spaces, low blood proteins would allow fluid to accumulate in the extremities where hydrostatic pressure pushes fluid out and there are not enough proteins (oncotic pressure) to pull the fluid back in. Regulation of Acid-Base Balance: the proteins in the blood also help to tightly control the pH of the blood. The pH is always kept between 7.35 and 7.45. Any significant decrease or increase in the blood pH may have serious, if not, fatal consequences. Our body will seriously defend a change in pH of the blood using many systems in the body and proteins are an integral part of the regulation. RDA for Protein: 0.8g per kilogram of body weight. If weight is in pounds, take lbs divide by 2.2 then multiply by 0.8 to figure out grams of protein you need in a day.
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