exerciseanswers2 - 1 Answers to exercises: Chapter 2 1....

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1 Introducing English Grammar, second edition, published by Hodder Education © K. Börjars and K. Burridge Answers to exercises: Chapter 2 1. Identifying morphemes We won’t discuss the words that are clearly lexical and mono-morphemic, that is to say which have lexical meaning and consist of one morpheme only and cannot be divided further. The following words do require some comment in that they consist of more than one morpheme or at least could be argued to do so: Nowhere could be argued to be a compound consisting of no and where , at least that is how it would have originated; however, it could also be argued that it has, over time, developed into one morpheme, a bit like cupboard has. Biopic is an interesting one, it looks like a compound consisting of two abbreviated parts, bio ( graphical ) pic ( ture ), but since neither bio nor pic is a morpheme of English independently, you could argue that it consists of two ‘cran-morphemes’ rather than two free morphemes, or maybe even that it should be treated as a mono-morphemic word. You may well have developed your own arguments for one of these conclusions. It’s clearly consists of two morphemes, it and ’s , with it being free. The issue here is whether you think of ’s as an inflection. It does not quite behave like an affix; it shares some properties with a full word, but it is bound. The term used for such ‘inbetween’ elements is usually CLITIC . Watchable consists of two morphemes, the free watch and the bound able . Watch is a verb and able converts it into an adjective, hence it is a derivational morpheme. Director consists of the free morpheme direct and the derivational suffix -or . The latter converts a verb into a noun, with the rough meaning of ‘someone who VERBS ’; as in instructor or conductor . Avoids contains the free morpheme avoid and the inflectional affix -s . We know that -s is inflectional because it only adds grammatical information (agreement with the subject). Beatles is best considered mono-morphemic. It may well have been the result of a word game, playing on beetles and beat , but it wouldn’t be right to see it as the plural of beatle . Clichés consists of the free morpheme cliché and the bound inflectional affix - s . Focusing is the -ing form of the verb, hence -ing is a bound inflectional affix added to the free morpheme focus . There is also a derivational affix –ing , as in building , but that is not the one used here. John’s consists of two morphemes; the free lexical John and the bound grammatical s . The behaviour of ’s is different from an affix like the plural s , particularly in that it need not occur on the head of the noun phrase: the president’s dog vs. the president of America’s dog (the dog belongs to the president, not to America) compared to the president of America vs. the
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2 Introducing English Grammar, second edition, published by Hodder Education © K. Börjars and K. Burridge
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exerciseanswers2 - 1 Answers to exercises: Chapter 2 1....

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