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Unformatted text preview: 1 Introducing English Grammar, second edition, published by Hodder Education © K. Börjars and K. Burridge Answers to exercises: Chapter 4 1. Phrasal category and function (a) [ It ] NP:SUBJECT was [ a light brown dog with the biggest brown eyes I have ever seen ] NP:SUBJECT COMPLEMENT. It is a subject as it can, for instance, invert with the verb to form a question. A complement is something that refers to the same thing as something else in the sentence; in this case, whatever it refers to is also referred to by a light brown dog with the biggest brown eyes I have ever seen . Since it refers to the same thing as the subject, it is a subject complement. (b) [ This dog ] NP:SUBJECT looked [ quite old ] AP:SUBJECT COMPLEMENT. The same arguments as for (a). (c) [ You ] NP:SUBJECT can tell [ by its teeth ] PP:ADVERBIAL (ADJUNCT). We have classed by its teeth as an adverbial, since it is additional information not selected by the verb and it answers the question how , not what or who . It modifies the content of the clause, so it is an adjunct. (d) [ At first ] PP:ADVERBIAL (ADJUNCT) [ it ] NP:SUBJECT was not [ so friendly ] AP:SUBJECT COMPLEMENT. (e) [ so ] Sub-ordinator:ADVERBIAL (CONJUNCT) [ I ] NP:SUBJECT stroked [ its fur ] NP:DIRECT OBJECT So is an conjunct since it links the clauses with each other. (f) and [ I ] NP:SUBJECT gave [ it ] NP:INDIRECT OBJECT [ a piece of ham which I had on me at the time ] NP:DIRECT OBJECT. When there are two objects, the indirect precedes the direct one. (g) [ It ] NP:SUBJECT [ suddenly ] AdvP:ADVERBIAL (ADJUNCT) dawned [ on me ] PP:ADVERBIAL COMPLEMENT. Dawn can occur on its own, but only when it relates to sun dawn, as in the day dawned . In this use, when it means something suddenly becoming clear to a person, it cannot occur without the PP. For this reason, we have classed it as an obligatory adverbial here. There are other possibilities. One could argue that the preposition was part of the verb, so that the verb was dawn on and me was an object. You might try to use the constituency tests to see which analysis you find most plausible. You might argue that it dawned on … is some kind of an idiom, since there are very few things that can occur in the place of it , but an idiom will also have a structure....
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- Spring '11
- Hodder Education, K. Burridge