exerciseanswers6 - 1 Answers to exercises Chapter 6 1 Tense...

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Introducing English Grammar, second edition, published by Hodder Education © K. Börjars and K. Burridge Answers to exercises: Chapter 6 1. Tense versus time (a) If you went to town tomorrow, I could meet you at Marks and Spencers. The tense of went is clearly PAST . As we have said, tense forms work differently for modal verbs like could (more about that under (c)), but formally could is PAST . However, the adverbial tomorrow clearly indicates that the speaker is talking about the future. This is an example of past tense and future time. Can you think of a reason why it works this way here? If you try the first clause without the if , you get an ungrammatical sentence: I went to town tomorrow . (b) He has created some famous cartoon characters. The finite verb has occurs in its present tense, but the event itself – the creating of some famous cartoon characters – happened in past time. Has is the auxiliary of the perfect and contributes perfect aspect. We said that perfect aspect indicates that the event happened before the time the speaker is focusing on, not necessarily before now. The present tense in this sentence is there because the speaker focuses on now; you can imagine adding an adverbial like by now to indicate this. It does not indicate that the event is now. (c) I could help you with your homework tomorrow. If you just look at the form of could it is PAST TENSE , whereas the adverbial tomorrow indicates future. In this context, the present tense form can could equally well have been used. It is difficult to say exactly what the difference is between this sentence and I can help you with your homework tomorrow . It is usually said to be related to tentativeness or politeness. Maybe you could ask a few native speakers what they think is the difference. 2. Marginal modals The characteristics of modals are that they lack a non-finite form, they do not take a third person singular -s and they combine with a verb in its bare infinitive form (that is to say that there is no infinitival to present). Like all auxiliaries, they can also combine with the negation without any need for a dummy do and they can invert with the subject to form a question. The one of us who is not a native speaker has written this answer, just to show that there are plenty of ways for us non-native speakers to find out things about English. For this, I have simply used Google. When you use the internet as a corpus for English, you need to be a little careful, since many pages in English are written by people who are not native speakers. You also need to keep an eye on where in the English-speaking world they come from, as there may be differences between different kinds of English. For detailed work you might want to use proper corpora, and usually a college or a university will have access to some of these. Considering the auxiliary status first, if it is an auxiliary, there should be questions
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This note was uploaded on 03/11/2011 for the course LIN 204 taught by Professor Anna during the Spring '11 term at University of Toronto.

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exerciseanswers6 - 1 Answers to exercises Chapter 6 1 Tense...

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