exerciseanswers9 - 1 ANSWERS TO EXERCISES CHAPTER 9 1 Focus...

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1 Introducing English Grammar, second edition, published by Hodder Education © K. Börjars and K. Burridge 1 ANSWERS TO EXERCISES: CHAPTER 9 1. Focus strategies (fronting, clefting) Here are the corresponding basic versions with the function and category of the focused phrases. (a) With the women and the children, the old and the unfit, the Master remained behind. The Master remained behind [with the women and the children, the old and the unfit = Adverbial:PP]. (b) That you MUST NOT do, for any reason. You MUST NOT do [that = Object:NP], for any reason. (c) Very puffed he was, when he got to Bywater. He was [very puffed = Subject Complement:AdjP], when he got to Bywater. (d) Tidings they had gathered in secret ways. They had gathered [tidings = Object:NP] in secret ways. (e) ‘Very comforting you are to be sure,’ growled Thorin. ‘You are [very comforting = Subject Complement:AdjP] to be sure,’ growled Thorin. (f) Lake it was, wide and deep and deadly cold. It was [lake = Subject Complement:NP], wide and deep and deadly cold. (g) Goblin he thought good, when he could get it. He thought [goblin = Object:NP] good, when he could get it. (h) Up, up, the dwarves went, and they met no sign of any living thing. The dwarves went [up, up = Adverbial:AdvP], and they met no sign of any living thing. (i) At that they gazed and wondered. They gazed [at that = Adverbial:PP] and wondered. (j) Swiftly along this they ran. They ran [swiftly = Adverbial:AdvP] along this [Adverbial:PP]. Here are the corresponding cleft constructions. The ones that aren’t acceptable are those that try to focus subject complements: (a) Gollum was really hungry .
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2 Introducing English Grammar, second edition, published by Hodder Education © K. Börjars and K. Burridge 2 [*It was really hungry Gollum was. This is an AdjP functioning as a subject complement.] (b) He was a Gollum – as dark as darkness. [*It was a Gollum he was — as dark as darkness. This is an NP functioning as a subject complement.] (c) He had a little boat , and he rowed about quite quietly on the lake. [It was a little boat he had.] (d) Actually Gollum lived on a slimy island of rock in the middle of the lake . [It was on a slimy island of rock in the middle of the lake that Gollum lived. This is grammatical but sounds a little clumsy unless the relative clause is ellipted – and it would be more usual to do that here because it contains uninteresting material.] (e) Bilbo could not see him. [It was Bilbo who could not see him.] Here are the corresponding non-cleft versions: (a) It was just then that Gandalf came back. [Gandalf came back just then.] (b) It was the wizard’s voice that had kept the trolls bickering and quarrelling. [The wizard’s voice had kept the trolls bickering and quarrelling.]
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exerciseanswers9 - 1 ANSWERS TO EXERCISES CHAPTER 9 1 Focus...

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