MorphologyIntro - Today The parts of speech Criteria for...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 Today • The parts of speech - Criteria for class membership - Lexical: noun, verb, adjective, adverb - Grammatical: pronoun, auxiliary, preposition, conjunction, determiner ..) Criteria for class membership • Sometimes the semantic differences between parts of speech are not clear. They have a funny walk. They walk funny. • We will use structural factors to decide what a word is: morphological and syntactic behaviour. Lexical and grammatical classes • Lexical categories are sometimes referred to as major categories, and the grammatical (or functional) ones minor categories. • In general, the major categories are open word classes and the minor categories are closed word classes. • Open word classes are ones to which new words can easily be added; closed ones not. Nouns: morphology • In other languages, the inflectional morphology of nouns includes markings for number, gender and case. • In English, number is the only consistent inflection. Gender is not marked, and case is rarely marked. • Regular: singular = unmarked (mat, match, city, hero, quiz) plural = add suffix – s (mats, matches, cities, heroes, quizzes) Nouns: irregular plurals • Irregular plurals: – uninflected: deer, sheep, fish – vowel change: feet, mice – suffix – en : oxen, children – from foreign languages, mainly Latin and Greek: indices (L), corpora (L), crises (G), phenomena (G) Nouns: case • The nominative and accusative cases are uninflected. • We will consider the possessive – ’s to be a case marking, unlike the textbook. This possessive case is genitive case. – ‘Japan ’s population’ = ‘the population of Japan’ • The ability to take – ’s is a telltale sign that a word is a noun: aspiration’s, the cows’, U of T’s
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2 Types of nouns: common vs. proper Common nouns • refer to general categories, and generally spelled with lowercase letters: boy, city, street • can be preceded by ‘the’ (syntactic criterion for N) • many can be pluralized Proper nouns • pick out specific referents and begin with a capital letter: Tom, Toronto, College Street • can’t be preceded by ‘the’ • can’t be pluralized Exceptional common nouns Abstract nouns (as opposed to concrete nouns) refer to things, such as concepts and ideas, that cannot be readily perceived with the five senses: anger, beginning, freedom, loss • Often abstract nouns can’t be pluralized or preceded by ‘the’. Desperation drove him to it.
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 03/11/2011 for the course LIN 204 taught by Professor Anna during the Spring '11 term at University of Toronto.

Page1 / 6

MorphologyIntro - Today The parts of speech Criteria for...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online