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Unformatted text preview: 1 Today • Handing in assignment 2 (returned in writing help sessions (T 5-6, W 12-1, R 5-6) and office hours (R 3-5) next week – see syllabus for locations) • Main sentence types: declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamative • Characteristics: discourse function, syntactic structures, intonation • Other ways of achieving a given discourse function • Tree notation Four major sentence types • The major clause types are declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamative • These are distinguished by: – discourse function – syntactic structures – speaking intonation or pitch patterns Discourse Function • We can distinguish four major discourse functions (or meaning types, or illocutionary forces): Statement: gives information Question: asks for information, and expects listener to give a verbal reply Directive: gives orders or requests, and expects listener to carry out an action Exclamation: expresses a strong feeling or opinion Syntax & intonation Syntactic structure : English is an SVO language (subject-verb-object, in that order). This order can vary in the three non-declarative clause types:- by inverting this order (VS),- by omitting the subject (V), or- by having a particular word or phrase appear first in the clause Intonation pattern : Towards the end of the clause, the speaker may either lower the pitch or raise the pitch up, as an audio cue, to help signal a particular clause type and discourse function. falling - pitch of speaker's voice falls towards the end of the clause rising - pitch of speaker's voice rises towards the end of the clause Declarative clause • Most common discourse function : statement (conveys information and does not expect any action by the listener) • Often considered the "default" clause type: the other clause types are often discussed as being derived from it • Thought to be the most used in all contexts • Syntactic structure : The normal syntactic order of a declarative clause is SV, but other orders are possible. • Intonation pattern : The usual intonation pattern of a declarative clause is falling, with stress usually on the word(s) conveying new information. Declarative clause (2) • SV: He cried. • SVAdv: A woman in a blue dress is standing behind him. • AdvSV: Behind him, a woman in a blue dress is standing. • AdvVS: Behind him is standing a woman in a blue dress. • SVO: No, she was wearing a blue dress. How many declaratives? Love is a burning thing and it makes a fiery ring Bound by wild desire I fell into a ring of fire I fell into a burning ring of fire I went down, down, down and the flames went higher 2 Interrogative clause • Discourse function : question (asks for information, and expects the listener to respond by giving that information) • Most often found in conversation, not writing....
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- Spring '11
- clause, declarative clause, discourse function