SyntaxIntro - Today Introduction to syntax The components...

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1 Today • Introduction to syntax The components of sentences Bound and free morphemes Inflection and derivation Compounding The structure of sentences Constituency tests Representing structure Sentences are made up of words • To start talking about sentence structure, we need to say a few things about word structure • Word Structure = Morphology • Morphemes are the smallest unit of meaning. • ‘elephants’ is made up of two morphemes: ‘elephant’ and ‘-s’ Bound and free morphemes • Some morphemes can stand alone, while others need to be attached to another morpheme. • These are free and bound morphemes, respectively. ‘I see a small blue bird in the tree.’ ‘He sees small blue birds in the trees .’ Roots and affixes • Free morphemes are the roots (or stems) that bound morphemes attach to. • Most bound morphemes are affixes . • There are three kinds of affixes. Prefixes come before the root, suffixes come after the root, and infixes appear inside the root. Prefixes, Suffixes, Infixes • Prefix: un happy mis identified ex -boyfriend re thinks • Suffix: fixable houses selling repeatedly • Infix: “I abso-freaking-lutely adore & love everything that you do, everything that you are, who you are, what you post, and everything else in between.” (from a blog) Grammatical and lexical morphemes • Most bound morphemes are grammatical (or functional) morphemes, whereas many free morphemes are lexical . • Lexical morphemes have meaning by themselves: top, hop, pop, mop • Grammatical morphemes carry more abstract meaning, and can express relations between lexical morphemes: -able, -s, -ing, in, the.
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2 How many? • “It is not exactly self-indulgence or coyness that threatens ‘The Unbearable Lightness of Being.’” • Morphemes? • Free morphemes? Bound morphemes? • Roots? Prefixes? Suffixes? • Grammatical morphemes? Lexical morphemes? Inflection and derivation • There are two kinds of affixes: inflectional and derivational . • Inflectional affixes give grammatical information such as
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SyntaxIntro - Today Introduction to syntax The components...

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