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SyntaxIntro - Today Introduction to syntax The components...

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1 Today Introduction to syntax The components of sentences Bound and free morphemes Inflection and derivation Compounding The structure of sentences Constituency tests Representing structure Sentences are made up of words To start talking about sentence structure, we need to say a few things about word structure Word Structure = Morphology Morphemes are the smallest unit of meaning. ‘elephants’ is made up of two morphemes: ‘elephant’ and ‘-s’ Bound and free morphemes Some morphemes can stand alone, while others need to be attached to another morpheme. These are free and bound morphemes, respectively. ‘I see a small blue bird in the tree.’ ‘He sees small blue birds in the trees .’ Roots and affixes Free morphemes are the roots (or stems) that bound morphemes attach to. Most bound morphemes are affixes . There are three kinds of affixes. Prefixes come before the root, suffixes come after the root, and infixes appear inside the root. Prefixes, Suffixes, Infixes Prefix: un happy mis identified ex -boyfriend re thinks Suffix: fixable houses selling repeatedly Infix: “I abso-freaking-lutely adore & love everything that you do, everything that you are, who you are, what you post, and everything else in between.” (from a blog) Grammatical and lexical morphemes Most bound morphemes are grammatical (or functional) morphemes, whereas many free morphemes are lexical . Lexical morphemes have meaning by themselves: top, hop, pop, mop Grammatical morphemes carry more abstract meaning, and can express relations between lexical morphemes: -able, -s, -ing, in, the.
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2 How many? “It is not exactly self-indulgence or coyness that threatens ‘The Unbearable Lightness of Being.’” Morphemes? Free morphemes? Bound morphemes? Roots? Prefixes? Suffixes? Grammatical morphemes? Lexical morphemes? Inflection and derivation There are two kinds of affixes: inflectional and derivational .
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