VerbPhrase1andMidterm - Today Midterm locations Tree...

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1 Today • Midterm locations • Tree notation for interrogatives and imperatives • Verb phrase • Midterm review MIDTERM: Tuesday, March 1, 6-8 pm If your last name starts with A, B or C: HA 401 (Haultain) If your last name starts with Y or Z: HA 410 (Haultain) Everyone else (last names starting with D through X): MC 102 (Mechanical Engineering Building) Trees for non-declaratives For ‘Does Jay like chocolate?’, keep all of that sentence and add the do S V AUX NP VP Does Jay V' V NP like chocolate (from last week) Jay likes chocolate. S NP VP Jay V' V NP likes chocolate Trees for non-declaratives (2) ‘What does Jay like?’: build on ‘Does Jay like chocolate?’ S' COMP S What V AUX NP VP does Jay V' V NP like Ø Trees for non-declaratives (3) Can use the concept of empty elements (Ø = zero symbol) in other places too! S NP VP Ø V' V NP Eat the chocolate! Try to draw trees for ‘Where you live?’ and ‘Be you quiet!’ Properties of the verb phrase (VP) • Tense • Aspect • Modality • Polarity • Voice
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2 Tense • Situates an event in time in relation to the present moment (past, present, future) It was cold. It is cold. It will be cold. • But the English tense system has many idiosyncrasies: time and tense often don’t line up. • The past tense is pretty straightforward - all of these examples refer to a past time He watched television. He was watching television. He had watched television. He had been watching television. Tense (2) But present and future times (= NON-PAST) are trickier Present: ?? What do you do? Not much, I watch a movie, ‘cause it rains. The simple present is rarely used to simply describe a single event taking place in the present, though it has many other uses: – Habitual : He smokes a pack a day. The bus comes at 8:30. – Timeless truths : The earth rotates around the sun. Global warming threatens our planet. It’s not easy being green. – Historical present : So he comes up to me, and he’s like there’s something wrong with your sandwich, so I walk back to the counter and demand my money back, but they give me a coupon instead. Tense (3) For single events taking place in the present, the present progressive tends to be used: What are you doing? Not much, I’m watching a movie, ‘cause it’s raining. For events in the future, there is no separate verb form. Modals and other verb complexes are used: I will be in my office at noon. Actually, I should be there by eleven. I’m about to start working. I’m going to finish my essay today. It’s gonna be awesome. Imma be on the next level. The two first examples above show the subtle contributions to meaning that modals can make modality Aspect • Refers to the internal structure of the event or its relation to other events • English uses auxiliaries to distinguish perfect and progressive The Standard English verb complex: (modal) + (auxiliary 1) + (auxiliary 2) + lexical verb auxiliary 1 form of the auxiliary
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This note was uploaded on 03/11/2011 for the course LIN 204 taught by Professor Anna during the Spring '11 term at University of Toronto.

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VerbPhrase1andMidterm - Today Midterm locations Tree...

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