VerbPhrase2 - Today Return midterm Verb phrase, part 2...

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Today • Return midterm • Verb phrase, part 2 – Classes of lexical verbs (6.6 and 6.7 in B & B) • Intransitive • Transitive: Mono-, di- and complex • Copular • Discuss midterm Adverbials • An adverbial is another kind of constituent that can appear in the predicate. • So far we’ve seen NP constituents in the predicate: direct objects, indirect objects and predicative complements. • Adverbials give extra information within the predicate, answering questions like when? where? how? for how long? how often? with whom? After his heart attack , he quit his job and became a mime. She fed pigeons in the park . They danced frantically for hours . Every week , Maria went for lunch with her mother . Identifying adverbials There are three main criteria we can use to tell that something is an adverbial: optionality, order flexibility and phrasal category. #1 - Optionality : Most adverbials (with the exception of adverbial complements – we’ll talk about these later today) can be left out of a sentence without making it ungrammatical or radically changing its meaning. (After his heart attack), he quit his job and became a mime. She fed pigeons (in the park). They danced (frantically) (for hours). (Every week), Maria went for lunch (with her mother). Identifying adverbials (2) • This is not so for objects and complements: they are obligatory. She gave her son a dollar. * She gave her son. * She gave a dollar. He became a dentist. * He became. Paul considered Nancy a friend. Paul considered Nancy. Today, I will get to fly a plane. Today, I will get to fly. Identifying adverbials (3) #2 - Order flexibility : Often, adverbials can be moved within a sentence without changing its grammaticality. After his heart attack, he quit his job and became a mime. He quit his job and became a mime, after his heart attack. She fed pigeons in the park. In the park, she fed pigeons. They danced frantically for hours. For hours, they frantically danced. Every week, Maria went for lunch with her mother. Maria went for lunch with her mother every week. Identifying adverbials (4) • This is not so for objects and complements: they must be in a particular order or else the sentence becomes ungrammatical. She gave her son a dollar. * She gave a dollar her son. Paul considered Nancy a friend. * Paul considered a friend Nancy. (Related to criteria #1 and 2 is another property of adverbials: they can be stacked , meaning that a sentence can have more than one. On Sunday
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This note was uploaded on 03/11/2011 for the course LIN 204 taught by Professor Anna during the Spring '11 term at University of Toronto.

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VerbPhrase2 - Today Return midterm Verb phrase, part 2...

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