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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 22 Gauss’s Law Overview of Gauss’ Law • DeFnition of Electric ¡lux • Through a single plane surface • Through a closed surface • Statement of Gauss’s Law Gauss’s Law Gauss' law , also known as Gauss' flux theorem , is a law relating the distribution of electric charge to the resulting electric field. It is one of the four Maxwell equations, and is also closely related to Coulomb’s Law. Defnition oF ¡lux There are two common defnitions oF the term ¢ux : In the study oF transport phenomena (heat transFer, mass transFer), ¡ux is defned as the amount oF matter that ¡ows through a unit area per unit time. In this defnition, ¡ux is a vector . In electromagnetism, ¡ux is usually the integral oF a vector quantity over a fnite surFace. The result oF this integration is a scalar . Imagine a net in the wind. The amount of air moving through the net at any given instant in time is the fux . 1. If the wind speed is high, then the Fux through the net is large. 2. If the net is made bigger, then the Fux would be larger even though the wind speed is the same. 3. ¡or the most air to move through the net, the opening of the net must be facing the direction the wind is blowing. If the net opening is parallel to the wind, then no wind will be moving through the net. DeFnition o¡ ¢lux Another example of flux is the magnitude of a river's current, that is, the amount of water that flows through a crosssection of the river each second. Defnition oF Electric ¡lux Electric FLUX = number of lines of the electric ¡eld entering or leaving a region (or volume) Electric fux oF a positive point charge Outward fux (electric Feld lines leave the volume) proportional to the net charge in the volume Negative charge generates inward electric fux (Feld lines fow into the volume) Electric fux does not depend on the volume encapsulating the charge, only on the charge amount Examples of zero net electric Fux Gauss’s Law: qualitative statement...
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 Spring '11
 Gruve
 Physics, Electron, Electrostatics, Gauss' Law, Electric charge

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