Chapter 16 Lecture Notes

Chapter 16 Lecture Notes - Reproductive Technology Gene...

Info icon This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Reproductive Technology, Gene Therapy, and Genetic Counseling Chapter 16 Fertility What does it mean to be fertile? Fecund What does it mean to be infertile? Who can be infertile? Preventing gamete Controlling Fertility transport Controlling egg production Physical and chemical barriers Fig. 16.1 Infertility Is Common Affects 5,000,000 couples in U.S. Both men and women 13% of all couples Most can be helped by assisted reproductive technologies Causes of Infertility Females: Problems with ovulation Oviduct problems Endometriosis Pituitary (hormonal) Males: Testis vein enlargement Unknown causes Duct obstruction Testicular failure From Table 16.1 Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) Artificial insemination (AI): Males are infertile Sperm delivered to egg In vitro fertilization (IVF): Sperm and egg combined in a dish Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT): Gametes placed in uterine tube Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICIS): Sperm injected into egg Fig. 16.2 Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Fig. 16.3 Ethical Issues: Risks 3X increase in ectopic pregnancies What is this? Multiple births: 35% twins or triplets Increased risk of low birth weight Ethical Issues: Risks Increased risk of transmitting genetic defects Potential increase risk of birth defects Ethical Issues: Selected Donor Siblings Prenatal diagnosis: select compatible stem cell donor Can currently be done Has been done Concern: reproductive technologies "could get out of control" Umbilical Cord Blood Umbilical cord blood = adult stem cells How are these different than embryonic stem cells? Benefits: your cells Downside: banking cord blood Most placentas are discarded Gene therapy = Gene Therapy 1990 Severe Combined Immunodeficiency SCID Ashanti DeSilva gene delivered by retrovirus Her immune system now works Ashanti is the only person to successfully receive gene therapy for SCID Gene Therapy Fig. 16.5 ~4,000 people received this therapy Setbacks in Gene Therapy Not completely safe: 1999 Jesse Gelsinger died treatment) 2000 two children died of leukemia (SCID immune response to the vector vector inserted itself into cell division gene Successful Gene Therapy Gene therapy has treated: Cardiovascular disease HIV infection Most often used to treat cancer Ethical Issues Currently Strict guidelines All patients are volunteers Informed consent Gene transfer is started after the case has been reviewed several times Types of Gene Therapy Somatic gene therapy = Germline therapy = Currently prohibited; alters all cells in the embryo Enhancement gene therapy = Genetic Counseling Provide information to families: Medical facts How heredity contributes to the disorder Risks to children Alternatives for dealing with risk Genetic Counseling Who should get genetic counseling? ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern