ch6&9.docx - Organizing is the management function that creates the organization\u2019s structure When managers develop or change the organization\u2019s

ch6&9.docx - Organizing is the management function that...

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Organizing is the management function that creates the organization’s structure. When managers develop or change the organization’s structure, they’re engaging in organization design. organization design: which is the process of making decisions about how specialized jobs should be, the rules to guide employees’ behaviors, and the level at which decisions will be made. 1)- Work specialization : is the division of work activities into separate job tasks. Most managers today see work specialization as an important organizing mechanism because it helps employees to be more efficient. 2)- There are five common forms of departmentalization : A. Functional: groups employees based on work performed. B. Product: groups employees according based on a corporation’s major product areas. C. Customer : groups employees based on customers’ problems and needs. D. Geographic : groups employees based on location served. E. Process: groups employees based on the basis of work or customer flow. Chain of command: the line of authority extending from upper to lower organizational levels. 3)- Authority : is a major concept discussed by the early management writers, who viewed it as the glue that held an organization together. Two forms of authority: Line authority : entitles a manager to direct the work of an employee according to the chain of command. Staff authority : functions to support, assist, advise, and generally reduce some of their informational burdens Responsibility : when employees are given rights, they also assume a corresponding obligation to perform and be held accountable for their performance. Unity of command: is a structure in which each employee reports to only one manager. Authority – A right; legitimacy is based on authority figure’s position in the organization. Power – An individual’s capacity to influence decisions. Coercive Power: Power based on fear. Reward Power: Power based on the ability to distribute something that over value. Legitimate Power: Power based on one’s position in the formal hierarchy. Expert Power: Power based on one’s expertise, special skill, or knowledge. Referent Power: Power based on identification with a person who has desirable resources. 4)- Span of control – The number of employees a manager can efficiently and effectively supervise
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Examples of contingency variables:(Employee training and experience, Similarity of tasks and task complexity, Location of employees, Use of standardized procedures, Sophistication of management information system). 5)- Centralization is the degree to which decision-making takes place at upper levels of the organization. 5)- Decentralization is the degree to which lower-level managers provide input or actually make decisions. 6)- Formalization refers to how standardized an organization’s jobs are and the extent to which employee behavior is guided by rules and procedures.
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