PSC140Lec3_6.23.10 - Concep-on to Birth Lecture 3...

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Unformatted text preview: 6/22/10 Concep-on to Birth Lecture 3 June 23rd, 2010 PSC140 SSI Lecture Outline   Conception   Genetic transmission Prenatal development   The prenatal environment   Birth   The newborn   The fundamentals of gene-cs   Genotype   Particular set of genes an individual inherits from his/her parents   Phenotype   The visible expression of the genotype 1 6/22/10 Gene-c transmission   Chromosomes   Threadlike molecules that contain genetic material (DNA) each)   46 in nucleus of every cell except germ cells (23   Sex chromosomes   X has ~ 2000 genes, Y has ~80 Autosomes   Conception     Union of ovum (female germ cell) and sperm (male germ cell) Gene-c heritability   Each gene has two alleles (A or a)   Alternate forms of a gene, dominant or recessive Homozygous = same alleles (AA or aa)   Heterozygous = different alleles (Aa)   Gene-c transmission of disorder   Gene level disorders   Dominant ­recessive patterns   Gene anomalies   Regulator gene defects   Chromosome level disorders   Sex ­linked abnormalities   Autosomal abnormalities   UnidentiZied genetic basis disorders 2 6/22/10 Prenatal periods Prenatal periods   Germinal period (0 – 2 weeks)   Single ­cell zygote Implantation Embryonic period (2 – 8 weeks)   Fetal period (9 weeks – birth)   Developmental processes   Cell division   Proliferation of cells   Cell migration   Movement of cells from origin to destination in embryo   Cell differentiation   Transformation of unspecialized stem cells to different types of cells   Apoptosis   Genetically programmed cell death 3 6/22/10 Germinal period Embryonic period   Trophoblast   Amniotic sac, umbilical cord, placenta   Blastocyst   Ectoderm   Mesoderm   Endoderm   Developmental patterns   Cephalocaudal   Proximodistal Fetal period Rapid growth of bone and muscle At 3 months body parts are identiZiable   From 4 and 6 months mother begins to feel movement       Brain is developing rapidly, systems maturing From 7 and 9 months, respiratory system reaches maturity   Fetus is viable with good chance of survival by 7th month   4 6/22/10 Fetal learning (DeCasper & Spence, 1986) Women read Dr. Seuss book twice a day for the last 1.5 months of pregnancy   Half read same Dr. Seuss book to their newborn, half read a new book   Newborns could control the recording with their sucking   Newborns used preferential sucking to hear the familiar book!   The prenatal environment   Teratogen   Any environmental agent that causes a birth defect   Severity of damage depends on   Time of exposure (what is developing)   Dose (amount of agent)   Individual genetic susceptibility   Maternal physiology The prenatal environment 5 6/22/10 Teratogens     Environmental toxins Drugs   Illegal and Legal Maternal diseases   Maternal medications   Maternal characteristics     Age   Nutrition   Stress, Emotionality The effects of teratogens Prenatal diagnos-c tests   Amniocentesis   Sample of amniotic Zluid is withdrawn by syringe   Ultrasound sonography   High ­frequency sound waves are directed into abdomen   Chorionic villi sampling   Sample of placenta is removed 6 6/22/10 The birth process Varia-ons in childbirth The process of labor is universal, but the cultural practices associated with it are diverse   Home birth, with midwife, is the norm in many countries   Nearly 99% of American births occur in the hospital     Medical, pharmacological interventions common   As of 2007, 31.8% of U.S. mothers had cesarean sections The newborn Average weight 7.5 lbs Average length 20 inches   May be covered in vernix   Loses ~10% of body weight in the days after birth     7 6/22/10 Newborn assessment: The Apgar Scale Assesses neonate’s viability Newborns tested at 1 and 5 minutes old   88.8% excellent scores (2004)       Black newborns twice as likely to score very low Newborn behavior Newborn behavior: Sleep Quantitative differences Qualitative differences   REM sleep       Active sleep, dreams   Non ­REM   Quiet sleep   SID syndrome 8 6/22/10 Newborn behavior: Feeding   A coordinated effort of both mother and infant   Lactation consultants Most newborns prefer to eat every 3 hours   Breastfeeding versus formula     The powdered milk scandal June 20, 2010 NPR Shop | NPR Community | Login | Register FIND A STATION SEARCH home news arts & life music programs listen Become an NPR sponsor E-mail Share Comments (1) Recommend ( 11 ) Print Worldwide Maternity Leave Benefits, 2006-2007 Full pay for less than 14 weeks Iceland, Malta Worldwide Maternity Leave Bene2its, 2006 2007 Less than two-thirds pay for a minimum of 14 weeks Australia* ,Canada, Japan At least two-thirds but less than 100% for 14 weeks Belgium, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom Full pay for 14 weeks or more Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Spain Belarus, Croatia, Estonia, Greece, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Russian Federation, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia, Ukraine Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Viet Nam Region Industrialized countries Unpaid United States Central and Eastern Europe Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Turkey Hungary, Slovakia Albania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Romania Asia Papua New Guinea Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Kiribati, Republic of Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago Afghanistan, Bahrain, Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Mongolia Latin America Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Panama, Venezuela Belize Caribbean Middle East Africa Lesotho, Swaziland Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea- Bissau, Kenya, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, São Tomé and Principe, Seychelles, Sudan, United Republic of Tanzania, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe Central African Republic, Chad, Djibouti, Niger, Somalia, South Africa Côte d'Ivoire Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Comoros, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Guinea, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Senegal, Togo * Australia's benefit, which begins in January 2011, will give parents 18 weeks of leave at the federal minimum wage of $569.90. Source: International Labor Organization E-mail Share Comments (1) Recommend ( 11 ) Print Support for NPR is provided by: Newborn behavior: Crying   Newborns’ only means of communicating needs   Elicits physiological response in adults   Colic   Excessive, inconsolable crying for no apparent reason   Cultural differences in responses to crying 9 6/22/10 Nega-ve outcomes   Infant mortality uncommon in U.S.   More than twice as common for African Americans as Euro Americans Prematurity and low birth weight A premature infant is born at 35 weeks or earlier   Low birth weight is under 5.5 lbs     Very low birth weight is under 3.3 lbs   LBW infants are at risk for many developmental problems   Cognitive impairments   Hyperactivity   Social difZiculties Tiny survivors   Madeline born at 27 weeks gestation in 1989   9.9 ounces   Now healthy, successful young adult   Boy born at 25 weeks gestation in June 2009   9 ounces   8.2 lbs in December, sent home in March 2010 10 ...
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