Chapter 15 Lecture Notes

Chapter 15 Lecture Notes - The Human Genome Project and...

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Unformatted text preview: The Human Genome Project and Genomics Chapter 15 Genomics Genome = Genomics = Very complicated process: Interconnected databases and software analyze sequenced genomes identify genes Why do Genomics What sorts of things can we discover by examining the genome? Mapping Genes What does it mean to map genes? Tells us relative positions of genes to each other Close genes get inherited together Difficult to do Gene Linkage If two genes are linked what does this tell us about them? crossing over Linked genes = will stay together during When does crossing over occur? Crossingover Between Homologs Fig. 15.2 Linked Genes Fig. 15.3 Human Genome Project Goal sequence the DNA of a "typical" person Actually sequenced haploid set Took 13 years $3 billion Two years ahead of schedule Completed in 2003 Human Genome Project Does knowing gene location tell anything about gene function? Next step proteomics Examines protein function Extension of HGP Timeline of HGP Fig. 15.5 Gene Sequencing Computer Fig. 15.7 Sequencing the Genome Clonebyclone method: Use a genetic libraries Make a map of genetic markers Cut up DNA Sequence DNA Cloneby Clone Method Fig. 15.9 a Sequencing the Genome Shotgun method: Use a genetic library Cut up the DNA Sequence Have computers match up sequences Shotgun Cloning Fig. 15.9b What Have We Learned? 25,000 genes Hypothesized: 100,000+ genes Only about 2% of DNA encodes proteins Most of the genome is "junk": What Have We Learned? "Junk" DNA: About 50% = nongene DNA, 100,000s of repeats Long stretches separate genes Genes are clusters Functions of Human Genes Fig. 15.12 Selected Genomes Genomics and Human Genetic Disorders To find and cure diseases we need to know: gene location normal function of the protein encoded by gene how the mutant gene or protein produces the disease phenotype Proteomics Proteomics = What will proteomics tell us? Your Genome Say you have a rare disease, and we sequence your genome. Who owns your genome? ...
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