PSC140Lec5_6.28.10 - Physical Development Lecture 5...

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Unformatted text preview: 6/27/10 Physical Development Lecture 5 June 28th, 2010 PSC140 SSI Growth Growth 1 6/27/10 Ea<ng and nutri<on   Infants rely on milk for the ?irst few months   Begin with solid food ~4 months Teething begins ~6 months   Young children are good at regulating appropriate food intake   The obesity epidemic Diabetes 2 6/27/10 Undernutri<on ¼ of children in developing countries are undernourished   1 person (usually under age 5) dies of starvation every 3.6 seconds   As of 2008, ~16 million children in U.S. are “food insecure”   Malnutri<on and cogni<ve development Gross motor development 3 6/27/10 Interac<ng with the world: Con<ngencies   Coordinating gross motor actions to make things happen is a major achievement of early infancy Gross motor milestones The case of the disappearing reflex     Newborns demonstrate the stepping re?lex By 2 months old, the stepping re?lex is gone Where did it go? Developmentalists assumed it disappeared with processes of brain maturation   But there was evidence that this was not true…   4 6/27/10 The case of the disappearing reflex   Ester Thelan hypothesized it might be all about chubby baby legs While infants are gaining leg fat faster than leg muscle, they cannot step!   Becoming mobile The importance of experience   Prudence comes from doing   Learning from crawling does not translate to walking 5 6/27/10 Motor development: Nature AND Nurture Early theorists identi?ied motor development as just maturation (nature)   Cross ­cultural studies show different patterns of motor development (nurture)   Motor development: Nature AND Nurture   Current understanding of motor development comes from Thelan’s dynamic systems view   Convergence of neural mechanisms, perceptual skills, changes in body proportions, and the child’s own motivation Interac<ng with the world: Scale errors 6 6/27/10 Later gross motor achievements   2 ­year ­olds       Walk well Run awkwardly Take stairs 2 feet/step Run well March Go up stairs 1 foot/step Go down stairs 1 foot/step Throw overhand Skip Muscle strength is built Actions become increasingly coordinated   3 ­year ­olds         4 ­ to 5 ­year ­olds         During middle childhood     Fine motor development The development of reaching Pre ­reaching Successful reaching: ~3 to 4 months   Anticipation and planning evident in reaching     7 6/27/10 The development of grasping Perceptual ­motor explora<on   Infants perceive different objects have different affordances   Properties that lend themselves to particular ways of interacting with them Later fine motor achievements   2 ­year ­olds       Use spoon and fork Turn pages of book Build tower of 6 cubes Feed themselves ef?iciently Put shoes and socks on Begin to cut Dress themselves Copy geometric shapes Draw a 3 part person Cut out complex shapes Print simple letters Tie shoes   3 ­year ­olds         4 ­year ­olds         5 ­ to 6 ­year ­olds       8 6/27/10 The development of drawing 2.5 years 3.5 years The development of drawing 5 years 7.5 years 9 ...
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