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Unformatted text preview: PSC 162, Summer 2010 Personality Theory STUDY GUIDE: CLASS LECTURE Alfred Adler’s theory INFERIORITY AND COMPENSATION Thought Freud focused too much on sex as the ultimate motivator and organizer of thought and behavior Social interest: the desire to relate positively and productively with other people o More important than sex Organ inferiority: the idea that individuals are motivated to attain equality with or superiority over other people and try to accomplish this to compensate for what they felt in childhood was their weakest aspect o Perceptions of weakness are more important than reality Masculine protest: the desire of an adult to act and become powerful, because of feeling inadequate or inferior o Can also be experienced by women; everyone feels inferior as a child o Particularly acute for boys because the most powerful person in their lives is their mother Inferiority complex Style of life: a particular mode of behavior that is based on compensations for perceived childhood inferiorities Carl Jung’s theory Interested in mystical and spirituality matters Collective unconscious: memories and ideas that all humans share, most of which reside in the unconscious Archetypes: core ideas of how people think about the world, both consciously and unconsciously o Earth mother, hero, devil, supreme being o Appear in dreams, thoughts, and mythology Persona: the social mask one wears in public o Everyone’s persona is false to some degree o Possible danger: identifying more with the persona than the real self o Identification with true self vs. social self Anima: the idea, or prototype, of the female, as held in the mind of a male Animus: the idea, or prototype, of the male as held in the mind of a female o Cause a masculine side and feminine side in everyone o Shape responses to the other sex Introverts vs. extraverts: psychologically turned inward vs. outward Ways of thinking: rational thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuiting People vary in which way predominates, but having a balance is best o The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Karen Horney’s theory Disagreed with the notion of “penis envy” and women’s desire to be male, however she did not feud with Freud o Instead, women envy freedom to pursue interests and ambitions Basic anxiety: fear of being alone and helpless in a hostile world o Attempts to avoid this anxiety can result in neurotic needs Erik Erikson’s theory and stages Many conflicts are conscious and arise at various stages of life o Psychosocial theory of development STAGES OF ERIKSON’S THEORY 1. Basic trust vs. mistrust (0–2 years) – Corresponds to the oral stage – Learn whether needs will be met, ignored, or overindulged – Development of hope and confidence 2. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (3–4 years) – Corresponds to the anal stage Controls Bowels and other bodily functions, learns language, receives orders – Figuring out who is in charge, adult pressures child to obey and child wants control, a balance.Figuring out who is in charge, adult pressures child to obey and child wants control, a balance....
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- Summer '07
- Personality Psychology, Trait theory