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Unformatted text preview: Biotechnology and Society
Chapter 14 Biotechnology Biotechnology = Used in/for: Agriculture Medicine Evolutionary studies Identification Criminal investigations Biotechnology Biopharming
Used to produce human gene products: Human insulin Growth hormone Factor VIII blood clotting factor All manufactured by bacteria Transgenic Animals Transgenic animals = Useful proteins made by animals: Spider silk protein in goats milk Human proteins in rabbit milk Why do this? Biopharming Edible vaccines: Vaccine produced inside of plants Vaccination = eating the plant Removes: manmade production, storage issues Genetically Modified Foods Transgenic crop plants: Disease resistance Herbicide resistance (why to this?) Pest resistance Enhancement of nutritional value Bt corn/cotton Golden rice Transgenic Cotton (left) Modified to Resist Insects Fig. 14.4 Transgenic Crops in U.S. (1996 2003)
Fig. 14.5 Genetically Modified Crops Transgenic Plants: Golden Rice Vitamin A deficiency serious health issue Modified the rice, a food staple Used genes from: daffodils and bacteria rice plants synthesize betacarotene when eaten it is converted to Vitamin A Golden Rice Fig. 14.6 Transgenic Crops: Concerns Transgenic crops = controversy Especially in europe Safety issues Environmental issues Why might using animals be useful for examining human diseases? What are the drawbacks? Human Disease & Transgenic Animals Mice make good human models for disease Share 90% the same genes Transgenic Mouse Models
Make diseased mice similar to humans: Introduce human disease gene Study progress of disease & test treatments alcoholism, Alzheimer's, ALS, , colon cancer and other cancers Transgenic Mice From: www.forbes.com/2001/07/26/0726gfp.html We can or do screen for: Metabolic disorders newborns Carrier testing Prenatal testing genetic testing Presymptomatic or predictive testing Genetic Testing Sickle cell disease, CF, etc Prenatal Testing DNA Microarrays Screen's 1000's of genes at once Speed up genetic analysis Screens for known mutations DNA Microarrays All Known Mutations Fig. 14.11 DNA Microarray after Hybridization Fig. 14.12 Human p53 gene Fig. 14.13 DNA Identification Microsatellites = 14 100 bp DNA sequences Not in the genes DNA fingerprint examining variation in short tandem repeat (STR) of microsatellites DNA Fingerprinting STRs 2 9 base pairs, repeated EX: TTCCC TTCCC TTCCC TTCCC TTCCC DNA fingerprint = variation in number of repeat copies fingerprints? Who would have the same DNA Variation in STR in Two Individuals Different Alleles of a STR Fig. 14.14 Probabilities in DNA Profiles DNA Fingerprinting: OJ Simpson DNA fingerprinting was used DNA was extracted from blood at the crime scene Compared with suspect In court, DNA fingerprinting can only be used to EXCLUDE an individual DNA Fingerprinting: OJ Simpson
Odds: Of blood found on the crime scene not being from O.J. Simpson and victims: 21.5 billion to 1 Number of people on the earth = 6.1 billion Odds of seeing 3 albino deer at once: 85 million to 1 Odds of winning the Michigan lottery: 76 million to 1 Odds of getting killed while driving to the 7eleven to by lottery ticked: 4.5 million to 1 DNA profiles DNA fingerprinting
Used for: Criminal investigations Identification of remains Species identification Identifying family members Paternity testing in humans and animals Analyzing DNA Profiles Fig. 14.15 ...
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