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1_opamp_slides_achar - Operational Amplifiers 1 Popularly...

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Operational Amplifiers 1) Popularly known as Op-Amps 2) Used for realizing various mathematical operations, such as Addition, Subtraction, Integration, Differentiation etc. 3) Widely used in variety applications, such as Amplifiers, Buffers, Oscillators, filters, etc. 4) Symbol, Definitions: We have v o = A( v 2 - v 1 ) A => Known as the OPEN LOOP GAIN Ideal Case: A Æ Practical Case: A Æ 10 4 to 10 6 v 1 Æ Inverting Terminal v 2 Æ Non- Inverting Terminal

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5) OpAmp amplifies only the difference signal ( v 2 - v 1 ). Hence it is also known as Difference Amplifier. If v 2 = v 1 then v o = 0 Î known as the Common-Mode-Rejection 6) Implications of High-Open loop gain (A) We have v o = A( v 2 - v 1 ) Î ( v 2 - v 1 ) = v o /A 0 Î ( v 2 - v 1 ) 0 (as A Æ ) Î or v 1 v 2 In other words, v 1 and v 2 said to be VIRTUALLY SHORTED Î If is v 2 grounded ( v 2 = 0 ), then v 1 0 7) OpAmps have very high input impedance ( R i ) and very low output impedance ( R o ) Ideal Case: R i Æ ; R o Æ 0 Implications: Since R i Æ , we have i 1 i 2 0
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1_opamp_slides_achar - Operational Amplifiers 1 Popularly...

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