pset1S - S o lu tio n K e y - 2 0 1 0 7 .0 1 2 P r o b l e...

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1 Solution Key - 2010 7.012 Problem Set 1 Question 1 The major macromolecules present in the cells of all living organisms are proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids. These macromolecules (with the exception of most lipids) are formed by the joining of specific monomers. a) Name the four elements commonly found in the major types of biological macromolecules. Carbon, hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen b) From the following, circle the type of bond or interaction that joins the monomers to form the polymers. Covalent bonds ionic bonds hydrophobic interactions van der Waals forces c) What is produced as a byproduct of a condensation reaction? Water d) Proteins are among the major classes of biological macromolecules. They show organelle –specific location and have defined functions. List the subcellular location of each of the following eukaryotic proteins in their active (functional) state. Choose from: Lysosomes, Extracellular matrix (ECM), cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi body, cell wall. Protein Location in active (functional) state A protein that binds to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Nucleus A protein that glues the cells together into tissues ECM A protein involved in the synthesis of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation Mitochondria A protein involved in the synthesis of ATP via Fermentation Cytoplasm Question 2 a) Consider the following carbohydrate that is a part of a protein . i. Name each bond or interaction that is circled in the schematic above. Explain why you selected these options. Choose from polar covalent, non-polar covalent, ionic, hydrophobic, van der Waals . Bond #1 (C-C): This is a non-polar covalent bond formed by equal sharing of electrons between the two carbon atoms. Bond #2 (C-OH): This is a polar covalent bond formed by unequal sharing of electrons between the carbon and oxygen atoms. Oxygen being more electronegative has a greater affinity for the shared pair of electrons compared to carbon. #1 #2 H
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2 Question 2 continued ii. Would you expect this polymer shown in 2 (a) on the previous page to be soluble in the aqueous environment? Explain your answer. Yes, the schematic on page 1 represents a polar molecule that can form hydrogen bonds with the surrounding water molecules, which allow it to dissolve in the aqueous environment. iii. What type of bonds or interactions occur between two such long polymers? Choose from: covalent, hydrogen, hydrophobic, ionic, van der Waals . Explain your answer. The multiple hydroxyl groups (-OH groups) that are a part of this polymer allow it to hydrogen bond or covalently bond (through an enzyme catalyzed condensation reaction) with an identical polymer. b) Proteins are composed of amino acids.
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This note was uploaded on 03/12/2011 for the course BIO 7.012 taught by Professor Lander during the Fall '10 term at MIT.

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pset1S - S o lu tio n K e y - 2 0 1 0 7 .0 1 2 P r o b l e...

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